1.1: bacteria. In the 20th century there was

1.1: Cellulose and Bacterial cellulose.

Cellulose is one of the most popular chemical compounds on earth .it is a primary compound in plant cell essentially in a plant
wall cell. Cellulose is a polysaccharide contains of hundreds or even
thousands of glucose units. It represents about 33% of plant
structure. In cotton, it represents 80% of its structure and 50% in wood.

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The structure of cellulose is a carbohydrate composed of carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen.it has molecular formula is (C6H10O5). The Cellulose is composed D-glucose units
linked by ?1, 4 glycoside bonds. So, poly (1, 4-?-D-glucopyranoside). It used in many different industries for
example: Manufacture of paper, plastics, plant textiles and explosives.

Figure 1.1: Formation of cellulose from glucose.

Bacterial cellulose or microbial
cellulose is an organic compound and it is one of biopolymer methods that produced by
specific type of bacteria. In the 20th century there
was no appearance of cellulose bacteria. However, it was discovered in 1886 by
A.J. Brown. That produced from bacteria called Acetobacter xylinum. In the
second half of the 20th A.J. Brown again discovered bacterial cellulose as a model bacterium by histeren with culture medium by fermentation of Louisiana sugar
cane juice.

 

Bacterial
cellulose has unique chemical and physical properties such as crystallinity, big
surface area, Biocompatibility, purity, high degree of porosity, relative high
permeability to liquid and gases, also has higher tensile strength and water
holding capacity that making it more appropriate raw material for producing
high quality paper and dessert foods. BC have different Application due to its
properties These unique properties make BC grow to have a good structure and shape
that is needed for different applications. The application in medical and cosmetic
as biomaterial. . In medical such as especially in burn cases and in cosmetic
include facial mask and contact lenses. Moreover, in food such as immobilization
of enzymes and cells and low cholesterol diet. Moreover in paper and textile.

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