2.6 Student-Teacher RelationshipStudent-teacher relationship is one of the factors that can contribute to students’ disaffection or engagement during English lesson. As stated by Furrer, Skinner, & Pitzer (2014), the idea disaffection impacting both students and teachers negatively due to the poor quality of student-teacher relationship which eventually can expedite students’ disengagement in language learning. In contrast, students are more attracted to prompt teachers as they develop sense of liking as opposed to animosity (Mazer, 2012). Insterestingly, one study by Kavenagh, Freeman, & Ainley (2012) revealed that male students felt that they were most likely being neglected by their teachers during the lesson. Thus, students’ gender may influence their disaffection and engagement depending on their sense of connectedness towards the lessons and their teachers.2.7 Gender Differences in Language LearningThere is a relatively small body of literature that is concerned with the factors contributing to engagement and disaffection which focusing on gender differences in ESL learning. Rostami, Hejazi, & Lavasani (2011) notes that there’s no significant difference in proficiency goal, mastery goals between male and female students that highlight the cognitive factor in engagement or disaffection in language learning. However, Varol & Yilmaz, (2010) points out that female students outperformed the male students in making attempts to discover new things during classroom activities. One study showed that low level of academic motivation among students promote negative classroom behaviour that contribute to disaffection especially among male students, however, unmotivated female students were still able to regulate their classroom behaviour (Bugler, McGeown, & Clair-Thompson, 2012). Another study on gender diference in language learning showed that female students were quicker reader and more interested in reading activities than male students (Xiong, 2010). Students’ genders should be taken into consideration in which can influence their engagement and disaffection during English lesson.2.8 ConclusionThis chapter has looked into theoretical background, conceptual framework, and reviews of the past studies related to engagement and disaffection among students during English lesson. The next chapter describes the procedures and methods used to conduct this study.?