8) Bioenergy and Waste:-Bioenergy is a broad category of energy fuels manufactured from a variety of feed stocks of biological origin and by numerous conversion technologies to generate heat, power, liquid biofuels and gaseous biofuels. The term “traditional biomass” mainly refers to fuel wood, charcoal, and agricultural residues used for household cooking, lighting and space-heating in developing countries. The industrial use of raw materials for production of pulp, paper, tobacco, pig iron so on, generates by- products such as bark, wood chips, black liquor, agricultural residues, which can be converted to bioenergy.
The share of bioenergy in TPES has been estimated at about 10% in 1990. Between 1990 and 2010 bioenergy supply has increased from 38 to 52EJ as a result of growing energy demand. New policies to increase the share of renewable energy and indigenous energy resources are also driving demand.
Lower energy prices do not favour short to medium-term development of first-generation biofuels and investment in research and development (R&D) for advanced biofuels produced from ligno-cellulosic biomass, waste or non-food feedstock is also set to decline. Decreases in crude oil and biofuel feedstock prices should lead to a decline in ethanol and biodiesel prices. Global ethanol and biodiesel production are both expected to expand to reach respectively, almost 134.5 and 39 billion litres by 2024.
The table shows biofuel share by region:-
The global Waste to energy (Wte) market was valued at US$25.32 billion in 2013, a growth of 5.5% on the previous year. Waste to energy technologies based on thermal energy conversion lead the market, and accounted for 88.2% of total market revenue in 2013. The global market is expected to maintain its steady growth to 2023, when it is estimated it would be worth US$40 billion, growing at a CAGR of over 5.5% from 2016 to 2023.
Biological Waste to energy technologies will experience faster growth at an average of 9.7% per annum, as new technologies (e.g. anaerobic digestion) become commercially viable and penetrate the market.
It is estimated that global waste generation will double by 2025 to over 6 million tonnes of waste per day and the rates are not expected to peak before the end of this century. While OECD countries will reach ‘peak waste’ by 2050, and East Asia and Pacific countries by 2075, waste will continue to grow in Sub-Saharan Africa. By 2100, global waste generation may hit 11 million tonnes per day.
9) Geothermal Energy:-The earth’s natural heat reserves are immense. The estimated stored thermal energy down to 3 km within continental crust, is roughly 43 x106 EJ, which is considerably greater than the world’s total primary energy consumption.
Geothermal energy contributes a small proportion of the world’s primary energy consumption. Electricity generation, geothermal produces less than 1% of the world’s output. There were 315 MW of new geothermal power capacity installed in 2015, raising the total capacity to 13.2 GW.In terms of direct use of geothermal heat, the countries with the largest utilisation, accounting for roughly 70% of direct geothermal in 2015, are China, Turkey, Iceland, Japan, Hungary, the US and New Zealand.
10) Marine Energy:- UK was the first country to establish world’s first marine test facility in 2003 to kick start the development of the marine energy industry. At present, out of 2.2 GW of commercial ocean energy 0.5 GW of commercial ocean energy generation capacity is in operation and rest 1.7 GW is under construction, with 99% of this accounted for by tidal range.Relatively few commercial scale wave, tidal stream or OTEC projects are operational right now.Three tidal stream commercial projects accounting for 17 MW of capacity are to be commissioned shortly, (with two in Scotland and one in France), and a 1 MW commercial wave energy array in Sweden.
Sweden has begun construction of the world’s largest commercial wave energy array at Sotenas which will incorporate 42 devices and deliver 1.05 MW of capacity. There is also a second project installed in Ghana consisting of 6 devices, together providing 400 kW of capacity.
15 GW of ocean energy projects is being developed and are in various stages of the development pipeline. Majority of these are tidal range (11.5 GW) followed by tidal stream (2.6 GW), wave (0.8 GW) and OTEC (0.04 GW).
Regional Theoretical potential of wave Energy:-
WAVE ENERGY INSTALLED CAPACITY IN OPERATION OR ;UNDER CONSTRUCTION:-
11) E-Storage:-In the twentieth century most the electricity production of electricity is done by burning fossil fuel. When less power is require less fuel was burned .Due concerned with air pollution ,global warming have spawned the growth of renewable energy like wind and solar power. As their no control over wind flow generation of energy is uncontrolled may be generating at a time when no power is needed .Solar power varies with cloud cover and is best available during day time ,while demand often peak after sunset .Which means there is requirement storage unit where surplus power could store is most convention form.
Energy storage not a new concept its mean capturing energy at one time and use for later time, though the development was restricted to one technology .Energy storage involve converting energy from one that are difficult to store to most convenient stable from .Hydroelectric dam perfect example of energy storage where energy of water is store and later on can be converted in to electrical energy. Pumped hydroelectric account for global 95% installed energy storage.
There are some other technology where short time energy storage ,while other can endure for long term .Rechargeable battery stored readily convertible energy chemical energy to power mobile phone battery Fossils fuel such as coal and gasoline store ancient energy derived from sunlight by organism that died .
Due to recent development in technology energy storage capacity increase significantly ,battery capacity there are around 25000 domestic installation in conjunction with solar PV installation ,with total capacity of 160 mw .Massive development is done in case of large capacity battery to almost 750 Mw.60% of stationary battery project accounting 441 MW are based on sodium sulphur technology which became dominate played in 2000s.New game changer could in battery storage could be flow batteries in medium term. Projection which is been made by various study shows that global storage battery market by 2020 could be 1.4