Chapter two sensors. However, with the help of

finishing the design and assembling the parts of an AGV, it has been met the
objective. All the requirements have been made to complete and finalize the
structure of an AGV, it has been tested and the result was as required, that
the AGV to move forward by following a black line, the AGV has been designed to
alter its direction from X-axis to Y-axis without the front wheel turning, by
driving the X-axis motor. The AGV was moving in an precise speed and stands after each time to
perform its tasks. There were some inaccuracies in sensing the black line, and
it caused the AGV to stop or alter its track. However, after tuning the range
of detection, the sensors were able to notice the line and follow the path
without any mistakes.2.     
has been chosen for programming as mentioned in previous chapters. To sort out
the cables connections from the controllers to the Arduino were quite
challenging and a single mistake in this stage can damage its whole electrical
parts. It was complex to program the AGV and upload it in Arduino to run the
motors with only two sensors. However, with the help of Arduino library the
program was completed with perfect outcomes. For scheming the robotic arm, some
of the tetrix parts have been designated and re-designed. In order to fit into
the AGV’s objectives, the robotic arm should move with 0,90 and 180 degree of
freedom, and maestro servo controller was used to program the robotic arm. The
programming was controlled through the control center in a PC. A servo motor
has been set according to the robotic arm motion, and the servo motor has its
own motion which have to be coordinated with robotic arm. At the end of
programming and completing the robotic arm, it has been tested and the result
was positive. 4.      The robotic arm could move to a required
position with acceptable precision. The robotic arm was functioning perfectly when
it was integrated with the AGV, specifically when the AGV could navigate the
X-axis and Y-axis direction. It’s notable to mention that the design and
development of a robotic arm were appropriate in achieving minimal friction at
the joints and an overall light weight. The water pipe was correctly positioned
horizontally above the robotic arm, and it could easily irrigate crops at the
desired point. The final form of the robotic arm is shown below in figure.5.       6.       7.      The choice of the servo motor
controller was perfect, because it enabled the synchronized mechanism of the
servo motors by specifying different properties like speed, acceleration, and
exact position. Normally a Servo
is used to position like steering direction, arm and leg movement etc. Servos are small box-shaped electro-mechanical devices that
contain a DC motor, electronics to control the motor from a signal. A gear
system is used to produce slow and strong output to a shaft, and a position
feedback potentiometer as figure above shows. The ideal motion of the
robotic arm was selected by framing sequences from single servo motors’
movements, where the software generates an automatic script. 8.      The voltage requirement for the
robotic arm including the servo motors and the servo controller is 9 V. This
was given by a 12 V battery connected to a voltage divider. It is done to avoid
any possible drainage of smaller batteries.9.       10.  The previously designed servo
controller has enabled an extensive testing of the robotic arm, which was choice than using
Arduino directly to control the robotic arm and the program generated by the
servo controller was initiated with Arduino by the use of a relay. However,
in this project, the robotic arm has been designed to be controlled directly by
using Arduino programming code rather than using third-party relay software as previous
designed.The speed of the AGV was fixed at constant while the robot
could move from point to point. So the stability of the robot at moving was too
poor. However, after the speed modification of AGV, it was set to be adjusted
manually as per requirement, by removing the EN-A and EN-B jumpers from
motorize card, and also by replacing them with cables connected directly as
input value to Arduino card with programming codes.H1 SS2 11.  Regarding the applicability of the
robot on a farm land, the robot is still not fully ready to be used in real situations.
Despite that, it has paved the road for further improvements as it has passed
the experimental phase. The improvements suggested by this thesis project are, to
use a four-wheel drive and a magnetic navigation system that can overcome certain
present downsides like, dust and the changing light conditions that may hamper
the function of color sensor. Finally, the robotic arm is to be guided with
ultrasonic sensor for better irrigation nozzles. 12.  As the final evaluation, it could be
said that the robotic arm achieved its experimental objectives.13.    14.    

check only, no paraphrase