Chlorine when the two molecules are similar and

                       Chlorine Oxides

Chlorine and oxygen also can bond in numerous

chlorine monoxide, ClO2,
chlorine(II) oxide

chlorine dioxide, ClO,
chlorine(IV) oxide

chloroperoxyl, ClOO

chlorine trioxide, ClO3,
chlorine(VI) oxide

dichlorine monoxide, Cl2O, chlorine(I) oxide

3 dichlorine dioxides:

ClO dimer, Cl2O2,
chlorine peroxide
chloryl chloride, ClO2Cl,
chlorine(0,IV) oxide
chlorine chlorite, ClOClO,
chlorine(I,III) oxide

                     Chlorine Peroxide


IUPAC name

Other names
oxide; ClO dimer


CAS Number



Interactive image



PubChem CID





Chemical formula


Molar mass


where else noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C 77 °F 100 kPa).

Chlorine peroxide (also
identified as dichlorine dioxide or dimer) is a molecular
compound with method ClOOCl. Chemically,this is a dimer of
the chlorine monoxide radical (ClO). It is dynamic in
the development of the ozone hole. Chlorine peroxide catalytically changes ozone into oxygen when it is visible
by infrared light.


A dimer
is an oligomer containing of
two fundamentally similar monomers joined by bonds
that can be each strong or weak, covalent and intermolecular. The term homo dimer is used when the two
molecules are similar and hetero dimer when
they are not. The inverse of dimerisation is normally called dissociation. When two oppositely charged ions companion into dimers,
they are stated to as Bjerrum sets.

Ozone Hole

Ozone depletion defines two connected phenomena observed since the late
1970.A steady failure of about four percent in the tot al amount of ozone in Earth’s stratosphere and a much larger springtide
diminution in stratospheric ozone around Earth’s freezing regions. The
latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole. There are also spring time polar tropospheric ozone
depletion events in adding to these stratospheric phenomena.


Chlorine peroxide can be produced by laser or infrared photolysis of the
chlorine molecule with ozone. The lasers used to break up the chlorine
molecule into atoms can be an excimer
laser at 248, 308, or 352 nm wavelength. Difluorodichloromethane (CF2Cl2)
can also act as a source of chlorine atoms for the formation of the
peroxide. Microwave expulsion can also break up chlorine molecules into
atoms that react with ozone to style chlorine peroxide.


    Cl2                   +           
hv              ?               2Cl

    Cl               +              O3                  ?     O2                +       ClO

+             M             ?     ClOOCl   
 +       M

 +             h?            ?      Cl   

   ClO2           +             M            ?       Cl             +       O2

Dichlorodifluoromethane is a neutral gas usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, and a chlorofluorocarbonhalomethane (CFC) used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant. Complying with the Montreal Protocol, its making was banned in
developed countries in 1996, and rising countries in 2010 due to concerns about
its damaging impact to the ozone layer. Its only allowed usage is as
fire retardant in submarines and aircraft. It is solvable in many organic diluters.
Dichlorodifluoromethane was one of the unique propellants for Silly String. R-12 cylinders are having white color.

Excimer Laser

An excimer laser, sometimes more
correctly called an exciplex laser,
is a form of ultraviolet laser which is normally help in the production of microelectronic devices, semiconductor built integrated circuits or “chips”, eye surgery, and micro machining.


Chlorine peroxide rivets ultraviolet light with a maximum absorbing
wavelength of 245 nm. It also engages longer wavelengths up to 350 nm
to a lesser extent. This is important as ozone grips up to 300 nm.

The Cl?O bond length is 1.704 Å, and the O?O bond is 1.426 Å
long. The ClOO bond angle is 110.1, and the dihedral
angle amongst the two Cl?O?O planes is 81

Dihedral Angle

A dihedral
angle is the angle between two crossing planes. In chemistry it is the angle
between planes through two sets of three atoms, having two atoms in common.
In solid geometry it is definite
as the union of a line and two half-planes that have this
line as a common edge. In advanced
dimension, a dihedral angle signifies the angle among two hyper planes.