Communication can be described as the bestowing or trading of data by talking, composing, or utilizing some other medium (Oxford, 2017). Animals need to communicate for many reasons, such as exchanging their feelings, needs, and experiences. For instance, birds sing and dance to introduce themselves or to look for food. Furthermore, cats rub their fur with our clothes to leave their scents as an expression of ownership. Although animals communicate, they cannot talk like humans. The shape of the mouth and its components, such as lips and tongue are not similar to human. In addition, animals’ communication system does not show any of the four particular qualities that are frequently connected with language, which are discreteness, grammar, productivity, and displacement. To clarify, bees have no words for up and down in their language and they cannot create one. Moreover, they have not the ability to use language to talk about something is not in front of them, such as past and future. Although animals do not have a real language, they have many types of communication ways, such as chemical communication, visual communication, and auditory communication.
First and foremost, chemical communication is one of the common ways that animals use in their communication. According to Bortolotti (2014), some types of animals use pheromones to communicate, which are chemical substances secreted by an animal’s exocrine glands that elicit a behavioral or physiological response by another animal of the same species. One common creature which uses pheromones to communicate with each other is the ant. Ants have many glands in their bodies, which produce numerous different pheromones. For example, when two ants meet they touch their mouths to exchange chemical signs, which contain the message that their brains are programmed to understand. They may use scents to present their readiness to mate or to attract their victims or to keep their colony safe from any foreign insectivores. It should be pointed that there are many types of pheromones and each pheromone has a specific purpose. Another creature that uses pheromones is the honeybee queen. Honeybee queen uses chemical signs, which are known as queen signs, to regulate its colony functions. For instance, the honeybee queen excreted its signs for the maintenance of worker cohesion and stimulation, so that they complement their activities, such as, building and guarding effectively. It is very interesting to know that when the honey bee queen dies, the colony will fail. The cause of that is the situation of chaos and instability is the missing the pheromones that the queen secretes to organize the colony. The chemical communication system is very complex and sophisticated system that can make the kingdom of ants or honeybees rise or collapse.
Secondly, visual communication is another type of communication that animals use. Visual communication can be described as a behavioral adaptation that animals use for many purposes. It is a slightly limited way to communicate because it requires special conditions, such as lighted places and direct vision. Visual signs come in the form of attractive colors, movements, body language and changes in coloration. Peacocks, which are social creatures, are a very common example. The peacock is known for its impressive and colorful tail. The males of the peacock spread out their tails to show their attractive colors for females in the season of mating. Although the visual communication is common in a very well-lit environment, there are some special cases of evening visual communication. Fireflies are an example of creatures which use visual signs in the dark conditions. The bioluminescence in fireflies happens because of chemical reaction in their bodies. Fireflies emit light for many reasons, such as warning their mates about predators and mating. As Lloyd (2015) explained, each species of fireflies have a different code of light. The males of fireflies broadcast their code to attract the females of their own species. This process of flashing can be described as the language of love.
A final type of animals’ communication is acoustical communication. Sounds are effective means of communicating for many conditions, such as long distances, darkness, and water. It is the most common way to communicate because it does not require specific conditions as visual communication. Moreover, it is the most successful way to communicate with the creatures that live in groups. The most known animal, who use howling to hunt and protect its territory, is the wolf. In fact, the howling is not the lone sound that wolves produce, but it is the sound which can travel long distances. Wolves have an extensive repertoire of sounds and they use a different tone for each condition, such as barking as alarm sound. Furthermore, there is another creature that communicates by singing, squeaking, and whistling, which is the bird. Birds use sounds for the same reasons that other creatures use. For instance, they are singing for seeking mates. Numerous studies on vocal communication of birds, anurans, and insects have shown that acoustic signals convey some aspect of male quality that influences female mating preference, but this has been less investigated in mammals and fish (Charlton et al. 2007). Finally, it is very interesting that many animals can create their own way of sounds to form a language.
To sum up, animals can communicate with three different ways, which are chemical communication, visual communication, and auditory communication. Firstly, chemical communication is the way that animals use to communicate using pheromones, which is a secreted chemical signal used to trigger a response in another individual of the same species. Moreover, visual communication is a limited way that animals communicate with each other using colors or lights. It is a limited way to communicate because it requires special conditions, such as direct vision. The last type of the ways that animals use to communicate, and the most common way, is auditory communication. Finally, as this essay showed, the communication is very important for animals. It helps the organisms interact to carry out basic life functions, such as surviving, finding mates, and defending territory. Animals have an impressive communication system which is too interesting to study.