Dengue virus is a well-known infection. It is caused by four types of viruses mainly DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 come from the Flaviviridae family. The viruses are spread through the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that feed throughout the day. Mostly, these mosquitoes can be found in places with stagnant water, including water tanks, tires, containers, and puddles. Some effects of this infection are flu-like illness and lethal disease which is severe dengue.
In recent years, the cases of dengue have risen excessively around the world. An estimated 390 million dengue cases are reported per year, 96 million shown clearly. Another report, of frequentness of dengue, calculated 3.8 billion people, in 128 countries are in danger because of dengue viruses. The incidence of dengue cases recounted, elevated from 2.2 million to 3.2 million in 2010 to 2015 respectively. Although the global encumbers of infection is unstable, the installation of activities to account initially illustrates the due accretion in the number of cases recorded in preceding years. More than 100 countries in the WHO regions of Africa, America, the Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asia, and the Western Pacific regions are facing this problem. Previously the number of recorded cases has resumed arising. Almost 2.3 million cases of dengue were recorded only in America in 2015. 10 300 cases were recognized as severe dengue resulting 1180 deaths (Bhatt S, 2015).
Nationally, the Philippines has declared dengue cases. Regions where most affected by dengue are Central Visayas, Central Luzon, Calabarzon, Metro Manila and Soccsksargen. Dengue happens nationally and done throughout the year in the Philippines especially in urban and pre-urban places. Transmission of the infection happens throughout the rainy season, May down to November (International Association for Medical Assistance to travelers, 2016). 43, 780 cases, 250 deaths and 85 casualties were reported and recorded by the Department of Health. Generally, there were 6,281 dengue cases in Central Visayas, 5,146 in Central Luzon, 5,008 in Calabarzon, 5,565 in Metro Manila, and 4,863 in Soccsksargen. There also provinces affected by dengue virus including Cebu (12%), South Cotabato (6.4%), and Pampanga (4.7%) (The Manila Times).
Locally, there is also a number of dengue cases. According to the annual morbidity record of Maco Main Health Center in September 2017, there are 4 people were affected by dengue in Maco.
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Calamansi is a little, spherical citrus fruit that is common in the Philippines. Calamansi, also known as Citrofortunella microcarpa come from Rutaceae family and a popular citrofortunella because it is an intergeneric hybrid between the trait of a citrus and Kumquat. Throughout the world, there are popular names for calamansi including calamonding, calamondin orange, golden lime, and Philippine lime. It is broadly cultured in many places around the world involving Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, and China. The availability of this fruit can sustain from beginning to the end of the year in the Philippines. Some people used it for decoration or as an ornamental tree than to look it as a fruit-bearing tree. The size of the Calamansi fruit goes to 23-35 mm in diameter. The color of the pulp of a ripen Calamansi and its peel is orange (http://www.fruitsinfo.com Retrieved: January 6, 2018).
Calamansi’s lime juice has many benefits, it has a pectin content that can treat a cough and cold and can lower blood cholesterol, also it is abundant in Vitamin C that can prevent tooth decay and pain, dental caries, releasing of blood in the gums and weakening of bones (http://www.fruitsinfo.com Retrieved: January 6, 2018)
Moreover, Calamansi peel has four well-known hydroxycinnamic acids including caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids that were considered in the methanolic extracts. It held the largest number of total phenolic acids. Phenolic acid is a kind of chemical compound as beta carotene called a polyphenol. Polyphenols have other types like flavonoids and stilbenes (http://www.verywell.com Retrieved: January 6, 2018).
The phenolic compounds 2,6-dinitrophenol (2a) and 4-chloro-2,6-dinitrophenol (2c) have different toxicity and larvicidal behavior. The compound 4-chloro-2,6-dinitrophenol (2c) showed the highest toxicity for larvae of Ae. aegypti and A. salina, exhibiting higher toxicity than 2,6-dinitrophenol (https://file.scirp.org Retrieved: January 6, 2018).