Different organs come together to form systems such as circulatory system and digestive system. Today I will be talking about the respiratory system. In a respiratory system, organs work together to inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. It is responsible for the exchange of gas in our body. This system is mainly attached to the circulatory system as if lungs won’t take in oxygen, heard won’t be able to generate oxygenated blood. Lungs are the major organ in the system.Heart can be found in the same place as lungs. Some other organs that are organs in the system are alveoli, trachea, bronchi. Fig 1.1 shows the diagram of the system.When a person breathes, the muscle contracts and causes the ribcage to move up and diaphragm to move down. This contraction causes the body to take in air from nose or mouth. In our nose, there is hair-like structure called cilia which secretes mucus. Cilia and mucus make sure that the air is clean when it reaches our lungs by trapping bacteria and dust. Later, the air goes through the pharynx and the trachea (windpipe). From trachea, the air goes into branches called bronchi. These branches further divide into small branches called bronchioles that allow the diameter of the tube to relax or contract so that it can control the amount of air entering the lungs. Bronchioles further divide into tiny sacs called alveoli that stores the inhaled bacteria and viruses so it won’t mix up with the bloodstreams. When we exhale, the alveoli releases the carbon dioxide so it can be eliminated from our body. When the amount of CO2 increases in our body, our breathing increases so that we can get rid of it and balance everything again. Lungs are made up of many several specialized cells and tissues. Cell specialization is the process in which cells develop from same kind of cell into the cells with specific functions within a multicellular (having many cells) organism. Cell is specialized by the protein they contain which is produced by gene. A group of same kind of cells or specialized cells come together to form tissuesWhen a cell divides, it passes on its function to the daughter cells. A cells function depends on temperature, neighboring cells, and contents of cytoplasm. In lungs, we can find pleura tissue (goblet cells), alveoli (squamous epithelium) and ciliated epithelium. Pleura is a tissue made up of pleural mesothelial cells. This tissue is double layers of acts like the membrane. Pleura surrounds both of the lungs and is attached to the thoracic cavity. The membrane allows the lungs to adjust according to the thoracic cavity. Further, squamous epithelial cell comes together to form the alveoli. These cells come together to form epithelial tissue which is very thin lining. If the epithelial tissue is healthy and thin, the gas exchange is efficient. If a person smokes a lot or inhales harmful gases, cancer can be caused. In Canada, most people get lung cancer due to marijuana. A person might get a heart attack as well. Cancer is a collection of diseases which is formed due to the mutation in the DNA of cells. The mutation causes uncontrollable and abnormal cell division and cell activities. A cell that has been infected by cancer will uncontrollably divide even in a dish without any growth factor or growth stimulating protein signals. Scientists say that cancer cells produce or make their own growth factors. These cells then transform into cells that ignore the stop signs or checkpoints in a cell cycle. As the cells uncontrollably divide, a clump of cells is caused, called, tumor. Each kind of cancer involves different kind of mutations which means each a tumor has different kinds of genetic alteration. Cancer cells start in a tissue but that does not mean that only that specific tissue will be affected. These cells can affect multiple tissues as they have the ability to invade. As cancer grows in a tissue, it leads to cancer in the whole organ followed by cancer in a whole system.Breast cancer is abnormal growth of cells found in’ a breast. When cell division grows out of control, a tumor is formed. On an x-ray, cancer or a tumour seems like a lump. Breast cancer is mostly known to be found in women but it can be found in men too. There are many different types of breast cancer such as ductal carcinoma in situ, invasive ductal carcinoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma. It can start from different parts of the body but mostly cancer is known to get started from ducts and glands. Cancer can spread to other parts of bodies if cancer cells get into the lymph system. Lymph system contains lymph vessels that connect lymph nodes There are usually 4 stages of breast cancer (0-4). Some impacts of breast cancer as a whole might be weight loss and nausea. Fig 1.2 shows a diagram of a breast.Mammograms: is a technology used to take breast pictures. This technology uses low-dose x-rays in order to detect cancer at a very early age when a women or men are not facing any serious symptoms. Most the type and stage of cancer detected by mammograms is treatable. In recent years mammography has advanced to digital mammography, breast tomosynthesis, and computer-aided detection. Digital mammography uses electronics instead of x-ray film to produce mammographic pictures of the breast. It functions just like a digital camera though, the radiation dose is lower.The output by digital mammography can be stored for long term. Breast Tomosynthesis is known as 3-D mammography. In this type, multiple images of the breast are captured from different angles and synthesized into a 3D image set. The radiation dose is higher than the usual mammography. Breast Tomosynthesis is the best type of mammography according to the doctors as it detects cancer better than other types, it is efficient and there are fewer callbacks (calling the patient back for more tests). Social Impact: When diagnosed with breast cancer, victims go through different emotions, especially women. The patients might find themselves facing depression, anxiety, fear, guilt, shame that they have cancer, etc. Some of the feelings might also be caused as a side effect of the treatment. According to the doctors, it is completely okay to go through different emotions before or after the treatment. Doctors recommend patients to join support groups, reflect their feelings, and take care of their health. In Canada, we can find multiple breast cancer support groups who help people with their emotions as they feel like it is an embarrassment to have breast cancer especially for people who get their breast removed. It is hard for them to indulge in the society as they are scared of society judging. For young survivors, it might be hard and stressful due to change in appearance and sexuality. It can also affect a woman’s mind and the decision of starting when cancer might be discovered or due to the treatment.Making Connections: Physics A camera is a device that captures visual images in form of videos, pictures, or film. In order to understand how does a camera works, we should know how does light relates to capturing images. Each object in the environment interacts with individual parts of light which are known as photons. These photons then reflect off the objects, causing their frequency to correspond with the color of the object. When we allow these photons to pass through a small opening (in this case a camera), an image is created. This image will be the image of the object present in front of the opening. A camera manipulates these photons by using lenses. A lense is found in the front of the opening called an aperture. It is known to be a transparent glass that is curved from one side. Due to this curve, the light that hits the surface of lens refracts..The lens gathers all the incoming light rays and focuses them to create a clear image behind the aperture. A person can adjust a camera lens in order to alter different areas of the image. He can decide what parts of the image should be focused or should be out of focus. We can find multiple lenses for different types of purposes. Such as zoom lens, wide-angle camera lens, etc. A camera lens is a mixture of converging and diverging lenses. Diverging lenses are the lens in which when parallel light rays pass through it, the rays spread away from a common point as shown in Fig 1.3. The focal point of a diverging lens is in front as you can see. A diverging lens is also known as a concave lens as one or two of its sides are in a concave shape. (A concave mirror is a mirror that is curved inward in the middle. When we look into a concave mirror, the objects’ image gets distorted) While converging lenses are the lens in which when parallel rays pass through it, the rays come together to a common point, also known as the focal point (Fig 1.4). The focal point of the converging lens is behind the lens. Converging lenses are also known as the convex lens as one or both of its sides are convexed. (A convex mirror is a mirror with a reflecting surface that curves outward.If we cover outside of a basketball with a reflecting surface, it would form a convex mirror. Only the center region of convex mirror produces the image that is not distorted.) The parallel rays that move towards the lens are known as the incident rays and the rays that pass through a medium and bends, are known as refractive rays. Why does a camera uses multiple lenses? Mostly in the front of a camera lens, we see a converging lens. A converging lens is placed in the front as a picture will not be able to be created if all the rays will not come together. Converging lens brings all the refractive rays together at one point but as the edges of the lens are like a prism, it disperses the light rays coming through it, which causes the disturbance in the focal point. This is known as spherical aberration. Further, it causes dispersion of colors too, known as chromatic aberration. This is why multiple lenses are needed to fix these aberrations. Mostly, after the converging lens, a diverging lens is placed. This is because spherical aberration in a converging lens is opposite of spherical in a diverging lens. When these 2 lens are placed together, the abberation can be fixed and light rays can be converged to one point. This is known as abberation correction. In order to create beautiful and detailed pictures, multiple lenses are inserted in one camera lens in order to fix the chromatic and spherical aberration. Refraction is the property of light that causes an image to form. The cost of a lens increases if multiple numbers of converging and diverging lenses are inserted. (Fig 1.5)The process of capturing an image starts when we press the button. As we press the button, a shutter that is located in front of the sensor moves away. This allows the light to strike the sensor in the camera. The size of how much aperture is opened and the time that shutter remains open is called shutter speed. Shutter speed determines how will an image appear. Sometimes, when taking a picture, incident rays from a bright object can hit the lens surface and reflect causing an undesirable flare to form in the picture. Most of the times, this flare can be experienced while taking a picture of sunlight. Reflection is the change in the direction of light ray when it hits and bounces of a surface. Environment and Society: Over the past decades, cameras have developed a lot. Few years back, cameras were bulky and big, and we were only able to take still images. Now the size of camera can be really small and still be efficient. We can even make videos. Cameras are used for safety purposes mostly everywhere now. People in offices, bands, houses, etc, everyone uses cameras for safety. Sometimes if a crime is comitted, police looks the camera footage of the place in order to find the offender. Also, people use cameras everywhere to take pictures and store memories. Further, scientists use cameras in order to take pictures of the environment, cells, and other substances so that they can observe them later. Cameras really helps us to understand an environment. Many scientists use video cameras and digital cameras to record the experiments being held on chemicals or nature. Some carreers related to physics are optics, earth physics, space physics, and nuclear and particle physics.Canada: Canada contains of Canadian Assosiation of Physicits, which highlights “Physics in Canada.”It contains of 30 corporations and 1800 induvidual. The association had been awarded since 1970 for distinguishing achievenments in Physics. Further, Canada also contains 8 provincial research organizations in physics. The oldest one is, Alberta Research Council. REFLECTIONhttps://www.kidneycancercanada.ca/news-plus-events/latest-news/2017-10-30-exceptional-contributions-to-cancer-research-recognized-at-canadian-cancer-research-conference/. -what i covered, canada’s careers or contributions. What did I not meet.http://www.cancer.ca/en/about-us/for-media/media-releases/national/2016/awards-for-excellence-ceremony/?region=onUnder The Weather – Communication(Climate Change and Chemistry) In my first paragraph of novel study, I am going to connect the stories, “How to build the Perfect Sandcastle” and “Tommo and the Bike Train” from Under The Weather to Climate Change. While, my second paragraph of novel study, I am going to connect the stories, “Sea Canaries” to Chemistry.How to build the Perfect Sandcastle & Tommo and the Bike Train: This story takes place in the Boracay Island located in the Philippines, in 1988. The issue mentioned in the text is sea level rising by 1 degree which killed one of the reefs. Sea level was rising even more now causing the second reed to die and sand to wash away. This would cause a humongous impact on the economy as the island was all about tourists. There was an increase in the temperature of the sea due to Industrial Revolution in 1970’s. Human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, irrigation, usage of vehicles, etc contributed to the increase of Earth’s climate. This also known as anthropogenic greenhouse effect which is the increased capacity of the atmosphere to absorb thermal energy. It can include thermal energy coming from Sun or the Earth’s surface. These human activities release nitric and sulfuric acid which causes acid rain and further, unnecessary CO2 and CH4 is added to the atmosphere. Methane and Carbon Dioxide in Greenhouse? CO2 and CH4 are two of the most important gases in the greenhouse as they are responsible for Earth’s climate. Methane can absorb 100 times more than carbon dioxide. In the greenhouse, we can see that CO2 is double the amount of CO4 even though CO4 can trap more heat. These two gases are removed through natural processes such as photosynthesis. Doubling of CO2 in the atmosphere can increase the Earth’s temperature by 1 Degree Celsius. When the amount of CO2 increases, the rate of evaporation increases too due to the heat. As an increase in evaporation can increase Earth’s temperature too, so in total Earth’s temperature has increased by 2 Degree Celsius. While, methane has a higher capacity for trapping radiation that means when a large quantity of methane is released into the atmosphere, more heat is trapped causing the temperature to rise. Over the years, emission of methane is increased causing unnecessary methane to enter the greenhouse. As the temperature of the air rises, the water found in the oceans heats up and expands causing sea level to rise. Increase in temperature also causes glaciers to melt which is another factor that contributes to increase in the sea level. Sea level rise can also cause floods. In the story, ” Tommo and the Bike Train” we see some of the consequences of the flood. It causes forests to damage and disturbing aquatic and terrestrial wildlife further it also affects the economy as buildings and houses are destroyed. In the story, we saw that poisonous snakes released and killed people. Sea Canaries: This story highlights the issue of glaciers melting due to global warming. When ice melts, the salt in the oceans decreases causing fishes to die. Further, when we release CO2 at a rate that atmosphere and water cannot handle, 55% of the oxygen will go away causing fishes and humans to go extinct. Global warming increases when harmful gases are emitted into the atmosphere by humans. Humans activities that contribute to global warming (or glaciers melting) are burning of fossil fuels, livestock farming, agriculture, and industries. These activities release carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide which are the 3 major gases that contribute to climate change. The burning of fossil fuels causes a huge amount of CO2 to be released. Since the Industrial Revolution, humans burn fossil fuels in order to obtain energy which increases. The equation for the burning of fossil fuels is, 6 O2 + C6H12O6 –> 6 H2O + 6 CO2 (Gaseous Oxygen reacts with Solid D-Glucose to form Liquid water and Gaseous Carbon Dioxide). This is a double displacement reaction with combustion as a part of it. Double Displacement Reaction is known to be found in 2 types, precipitation reactions, and neutralization reactions. In this two compounds react with each other and from each compound one element switches places with another.(AB+CD=AD+CB) In this case, Oxygen combined with hydrogen from D-glucose and Carbon combined with Oxygen from D-glucose.Also, it produces water. This is also a combustion reaction as it contains a hydrocarbon molecule and oxygen. Also, because 2 products are being formed. As the fossil fuels are burnt, O2 (oxygen) reacts with C6H12O6 (glucose) in order to produce water and carbon dioxide. We can identify it is a chemical change as heat and light are emitted by the solutions when they are mixed and burnt. Also, there are in temperature and color. All the compounds in the equation are covalent compounds as they are non-metals that have bonded by sharing their valence electrons. (C6H12O, H2O, and CO2) If they were ionic, one of them would be a metal combining with a nonmetal. Further one element would have been losing electrons while one would gain electrons (PBS, Lead (II) Sulfide). Fig 2.1 and Fig 2.2 shows the process of balancing equation. Further, Fig 2.3 shows that number of atoms. Further due to the waste, or increasing rice paddies fields in order to serve humans, the emission of methane and carbon dioxide increases in the atmosphere which eventually causes the glaciers to melt. Usually, acetic acid (CH3COOH) is released into the air and through the process of methanogenesis, Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Methane (CH4). The chemical equation for CH3COOH turning into CO2 and CH4 is, CH3COOH ——–> CO2 + CH4.This reaction is a decomposition reaction as the compound is breaking down into 2 simpler compounds and because energy was needed as an input. It knows it is a chemical reaction as there is a change in color, temperature, and bubbles are formed. All the compounds in the equation are covalent as they all are non-metals. ReflectionSingle Displacement ReactionSynthesis CONTRIBUTIONSScientific InquiryFinal Evaluation Scientific Lab: ChemistryUnderstanding ConceptsPhysics and Biology: Microscopes.In order to connect physics and biology, I will be talking about microscopes. Microscope is an optical intrument used to study particles/substance that is not visible to human eyes. The first ever microscope was created by Zacharias Jenson and his father in 1950’s. They inserted several lenses in a tube and the object in front of the tube seemed to be engaged. Though, Anton Van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch scientist was the first person to construct and use an actual microscope. Most microscopes are used in biology in order to understand different parts of human cells and plant cells. All histologists use a microscope to analyze a tissue and identify if it is cancerous. They are able to identify if it is cancerous because as we know cancer cells divide uncontrollably. Further, microscopes are used to identify forensic evidence such as bullets, blood, hair, etc and to study different proteins within’ a cell. Even after so much advancement, there are still some parts of humans and plants that are yet to be discovered. Many biologists use a microscope to observe and compare the health of a particular ecosystem over a time period. A microscope is also used by researchers to study atoms, chemical reactions, etc. Today we can find different types of microscopes such as laser microscope, fluorescence microscope, x-ray microscope, and atomic force microscope. Fig 4.1 shows a diagram of a regular microscope. What we see in the picture is an optical microscope. An optical microscope is also known as compound microscope as it uses multiple amounts of lenses to provide magnification. This microscope allows one to magnify an object 10 times from its viewing lens and four additional lenses that magnifies an object by 4,10,40, and 100 times. Different types of lenses used in a microscope are: An objective lens is a lens that can be found the closest to the slide we are observing. Its job is to gather light and enhance magnification. Object lenses are made up of several lenses. Fig 4.2 shows the lenses that come together to form an object lens. In the bigger object lens, we can see it used 6 converging lenses and 2 diverging lenses. The two diverging lenses are covering one of the converging lenses. This objective lens will provide a good quality picture as it combined different lenses to ignore chromatic and spherical aberration. The smaller objective lens only contains 3 converging lenses. Result from this lens might not be great as it is not fixing refractive errors.An ocular lens is a lens that is closest to the eyes or in simper words, it is also known as eyepiece lense. Its job is to re-magnify the image when light enters the objective lens. The power of the eyepiece lens combines with the objective lens to provide a clearer and larger image. An ocular lens is a plane converging lens. A converging lens is placed due its concave side. In a concave shapes mirror or lens, the image created in the middle is big and magnified. The third lens in a microscope is condenser lens whose function is to focus the incoming light from the light source into the slide which will later feed into the objective lens. We can find a condenser lens above the light source and beneath the slide platform. A condenser lens uses a converging lens to focus the light.A light source is important in a microscope as it is the major component of magnifying the object. A lot of light is needed in order to given a magnified bright outcome of the object and if there was no light, the viewer will not be able to see anything. How is light created? Light is created by electromagnetic waves. An electromagnetic wave is caused when an atom absorbs energy and this causes one or more electrons to change their spots. When these electrons return to their spot, an electromagnetic wave is produced. A way to make an atom absorb energy is by electrical energy. Usually, this is done with neon signs. Electricity is added to neon atoms by neon tubes which excites them and gives them energy. The electrons in the neon atoms have very high energy which causes a spark and we see it as light.Microscopes are really beneficial for the society as microscopes allow one to understand one structure better. It there was no microscopes, we will not be able to come up with medicines or even we won’t be able to identify what is wrong with’ an ecosystem or humans. Due to microscopes, many people can identify their allergies too.