During rejected the Versailles Treaty in which Germany

During the appeasement policy, France’s concerns
reached the top point. In 1935, The Anglo-German Naval Agreement was signed
between Britain and Nazi Germany. France thought about this agreement that this
agreement ruins Anti-Hitler front for Britain and France. It would be concluded
with terrible results. When the Hitler’s plans became clear, Britain believed
that the diplomacy could solve the disputes.

– German Relations 

            The relations with Germany
took an important part for British foreign policy. Adolf Hitler came to power
in 1933 and he rejected the Versailles Treaty in which Germany lost 13% of
pre-war territory and 10% of population and withdrew from the disarmament conferences
and left from League of Nations. In 1932, Germany had 5 millions unemployed and
need to pay 2,6 millions marks to European Reconstruction Fund. The increasing
problems impelled Hitler made to take these decisions. Britain abstained from
the sudden movement. Hitler entered the armed race and according to Churchill
(1934) ” Germany is arming fast and no one is going to stop her.” At
the beginning of 1930’s the German threat was increasing rapidly and forcing
other states to take precautions against Germany.

appeasement policy was used to reduce Germany threat in Europe. This policy
aimed to make political or material concessions to an aggressive power in order
to avoid conflict. Britain and France coordinated their foreign policies toward
the aggressive dictatorships.  End of the
30’s, Hitler’s aims became very clear. He wanted to spread his territories by
using force. Especially, the Anschluss and Sudetenland Crisis was a good
example of Hitler’s aim. Germany invaded the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia ,
Britain and France wanted to stop to use military force in the future by
Hitler. In 1938, Munich Agreement was signed by Britain, France, Nazi Germany
and Italy. Today, some historians agreed that the Munich Agreement was a failed
act of appeasement toward Hitler’s Nazis because Hitler captured all
Czechoslovakia one year after. Britain did not prevent German’s rearmament and
expansionism.  It caused the beginning of
the Second World War. Chamberlain could not get Hitler to its control.1



– Soviet Relations

            Soviet relations were most
confusing relations  for Britain during
interwar period. New system, communism, brought some new characteristic
properties for Soviet diplomacy. However, during the interwar period, Britain
left its sympathy to communism. Especially, the public opinion against the
communism was negative and hostile. Lenin’s peace agreement with Germans  in March 1918 and Soviets’ unwillingness to
repay its debts were the examples of Britain’s negative opinion towards
Soviets. Also, Britain sent troops to Archangel to secure war supplies not to
fall into Bolsheviks. The left wing in Britain condemned British intervention
to the area. The left wing wanted to gain support in Britain and tried to
increased the power of leftist parties. In 1920, the British Communist Party
had 4000 members and the comintern claimed that Britain was the leader of
capitalist and imperialist aggression over the world. Against the internal
situations in Britain about the communism, Soviets wanted to continue normal
relations with Britain.

trade agreement would help to refrain from the propagandas about Soviets in
March 1921. Moreover, when the Labour Party came to power in 1924 made a deal
with Soviets to guarantee a loan of £30,000,000 in August. These conciliatory
moves helped a potential alliance between Britain and Soviets in World War II.
However, the conciliatory moves did not continue for a long time. First,
Baldwin did not ratify Anglo – Soviet agreement. Second, Soviets donated to
Miners’ Federation during 1926 General Strike and that move angered government.
In 1929, Labour government restored the diplomatic relations and signed new
commercial treaty.

saw USSR more hostile and dangerous to its traditional values and interests
after 1931. However, The kingdom faced with growing Nazi threat in Europe and
obligated to abandon hostility of Soviets and supported collective security and
stability. USSR signed a defence pacts with France and Czechoslovakia against a
potential attack from Nazi Germany. Chamberlain voiced in his speech the
profound distrust of Russia. He believed that the encirclement policy might
lead to rather than prevent the war. In April 1939, Chamberlain agreed to
negotiations with Russia.

the Second World War, British citizens’ opinions about the Soviets and Nazis
were very clear. 85% of the participants thought that the Soviets would win in
a possible war against Nazis. Also 74% of people supported communism against
fascism in that period. People’s approach was more positive towards communism.
Moreover, 84% of people thought that United Kingdom, France and USSR could make
a friendly and military alliance against Nazi Germany.  These number proved that British citizens had
positive attitude against Soviets before the World War II and agreements and
loans proved that in politic level.

– Italian Relations

were disappointment to Alliances in Paris Peace Treaty and the public anger
towards Orlando government increased. Failing economy and lack of jobs caused
to collapse of Orlando government and Bennito Mussolini, the Fascist Party came
to power in 1921. Mussolini wanted to show to the world how powerful Italy was
under his leadership. He made a clear foreign policy which he told that: ” “My
objective is simple. I want to make Italy great, respected and feared and the
Twentieth Century will be a century of Italian power.” His one of the most
important aim was to re-establish the greatness of the Roman Empire. According
to Mussolini,  conquered foreign
territories was the proof of a great power and nation. He defined the
Mediterranean See as “Mare Nostrum” which translated as “Our
Sea”.  However, Great Britain had a
big power in Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, Britain had strong naval bases in
Malta, Gibraltar and Cyprus and also controlled the Suez Canal, along with
France. Abyssinia Crisis increased tension between the two

             The Fascist Party had good relations with
Hitler and this was a threat for Britain. Mussolini saw Hitler as a junior
partner in the relationship between the two countries. He also saw Hitler as a
potential rival because Hitler wanted a union with Austria and Italy had a
common border with Austria. This move have alarmed Mussolini. Unlike, the first
years of Mussolini, he tried to keep good relations with France and Britain
after Hitler came to power. He invited four big powers’ representatives to a
meeting in Rome. They signed the Four power Pact. According to Mussolini, these
countries came to Rome and Italians did not have to go outside, so he claimed
that Italy proved its leadership in Europe. This agreement was also a good
agreement for Britain to reduce tension in Europe.



            During interwar period,
British foreign policy faced various problems. The government in late of 1930’s
were demanding to play world policeman role with USA. Also, Britain struggled
economic and politic issues like lack of jobs, Great Depression, rising communism
movements and the Communist Party. Focusing on its own problems, Britain had
attempted to stay relatively removed from European power politics during the
interwar years. According to me, some political failures happened in that
period such as  Chamberlain overestimate
the Britain’s power against Nazis.  The
appeasement policy was effective in short period but in the long period, this
policy did not prevent the war. Moreover, 
some movements have caused Germany to gain strength like Munich Pact in
1938, granting Hitler the Sudetenland. This shows British foreign policy’s
weaknesses. On the other hand, British foreign policy tried to keep stability
in Europe. As a policeman, Britain wanted to keep balance of power in Europe
against the dictators in Germany and Italy. European countries faced with serial
problems after the First World War because of the economic depression, lack of
the jobs and high unemployment. However, Britain was not more powerful neither
economically nor politically  than before
the World War II and understood that made alliances to provide permanent peace
and balance of power in Europe. 
Actually, Britain had not much options to keep stability and peace
because of the economic and politic situations. Nevertheless, Britain may had
done its best and this shows the strength of British foreign policy during
interwar period.

1 World War One Germany had to face serious problems.. (2003, August
26). In WriteWork.com. Retrieved 09:39, January 14, 2018, from