Energy of India are promoting their own solar

Energy crisis is the one of most vital problem in
the world, especially in India. Among the factors that contribute to this is
the rapid growth in population. From last decade human has a hope that
renewable energy can accomplish the requirement of energy. Renewable energy is
produced from natural resources such as the wind, sun, biomass and water. It is
ample and is a natural form of resource. The use of renewable resources of
energy is growing rapidly because of increasing the price of fossil fuels, the
effect of fossil-fuel on the environment and human health.

Energy produced by Photovoltaic technology could
offer a promising and environment-clean alternative to fossil-fuel-based energy
generation. Photovoltaic technology uses solar cells; made of semiconductors,
convert directly solar irradiance into electricity Jacobson.

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India has high solar insolation, an ideal condition
for producing solar energy. Government of India are promoting their own solar
based power generation by introducing specific policies and funding for
increasing the energy generation capacity, including technology enhancement
that favoritisms generation of energy by solar. Energy produced by Photovoltaic
technology in India has been growing at rate of 113% and now dropped to around
Rs 4.34 per Kwh, which is around 18% lower than the average price for
electricity generated by coal-fixed plants. Indian government has plan for to
generate more than 100 gigawatts of solar energy by 2022.

 

Despite all these benefits, the utmost drawback of
photovoltaic systems is limited efficiency, which ranges between 12% and 20% razy.
Generally rating of the PV modules is based on the indoor lab condition: Solar
spectrum of AM 1.5, solar insolation of 1000 W/m2 and module ambient
temperature at 25C. However, actual working conditions are different from indoor
lab conditions when PV module exposed. Temperature and solar irradiance are two
main parameters, which play an important role to influence the generation of
output power of solar module. In addition to these parameters, amount of energy
yield from PV modules is depends on type of PV modules, type of front surface
of PV modules and electrical characteristics of PV modules.

 

The output power of PV module is also significantly influenced
by environmental factors such as solar radiation, ambient temperature, humidity,
rainfall, seasonal change, dust, wind speed and direction. Apart from
environmental factors, installation factors such as tilt angle, orientation,
altitude, seasonal tilt adjustment and location of installation play the vital
role to affect the performance the PV module.

 

The
major factor degrading the production of PV module is dust deposition on PV
surface that causes a huge energy losses energy during long term utilization. Accumulation
of dust for longer period damages the layer of panel resulting into permanent
less output & decreasing life span. Dust deposition on the surface of the
solar PV system manly depends upon the two factors; site location and local
environment conditions.

 

Dust
is defined as the tiny solid elements less than 500m in diameter. Bird
droppings, plant products, pollens, sand, hair, and microfibers are also referring
as dust when deposited on surface of the PV module. Dust deposition depend on
the dust properties such as chemical properties, size, shape, weight and different
environmental conditions such as wind speed , wind direction, humidity, ambient
temperature, dust storms, pollution. Surrounding activities such as human actions,
vehicle movement and volcanic discharges can also increase the dust deposition
mani.

 

Research
conducted by 5-8-13 presented that there are significant losses on the energy
yield from the PV modules due to dust deposition. A research conducted by 10 on the
effect of dust deposition for two 1 MWp rated PV plants which comprises of 60
units crystalline modules on each plants, revealed that the losses in output
power are from 1.1-6.9%. These losses will give high impact to the income of
the plant.

 

 The output power loss of the modules can be
avoided, if modules are clean periodically. We also study here about the
different method of cleaning of surface of PV module. Several of cleaning
methods & techniques have been developed to mitigating the effect of dust
deposition. These methods & techniques are costly depending on the type of
cleaning system. These include natural, manual, automatic cleaning methods.

 

The
natural effect of cleaning by rain or snow has been observed in numerous
studies throughout the world. An area with low dust deposition and periodic
precipitation, dust is not the key problem; the rain water cleans the dirty PV module
which recovers their normal performance zorrilla. If the intensity of rain
and duration is less, rain can enhance the dust deposition problem.

 

In manual cleaning technique,
Manpower is required to clean of surface of PV module manually with the help of
mopp or any wipers with suitable support structures. In large PV plants, the
major problems are the consumption of water, especially in those areas with
water shortage and power consumed by the pumping system29.  The process is found to be very tedious and challenging
as the solar power plants consists of numbers of panels installed at a height
of 8 to 15 feet or more from the ground. The time required and safety of the
person and panel is in threat.

 

Mazumder1
studied the effect of electrodynamics removal of dust from solar panels. He
found that when the electrodes are activated by phased voltage, the dust
particles on the surface of the film become electro-statically charged and they
may be removed by the alternating electric field, within 2 min. more than 90%
of dust deposition is removed.

 

Bock,
sims designed a self-cleaning solar panels with integrated electro-dynamic
screens. They found that higher the voltage, the enhanced the dust removing and
vise-versa. This type of cleaning method has some limitations such as it cannot
remove the muddy or sticky particles because it does not contain any liquid and
it has high initial and operation costs.

 

A
reviewed paper by{mani is discussing the effect of dust on PV module
performance during two time phases, 1940-1990 and 1990-2010. Main focus of this
study is only on the effect of environmental factors on the performance of PV
module without finding the effective techniques of reducing their impact. Mekhilef
et al.  studied the effects of dust
deposition, wind speed, humidity surrounding the PV module. They reported that
each factor influences the other and they should be considered simultaneously.
Jamil et al reviewed  the types of soiling
and discussed the comparison of present mitigation methods of soiling. Syed et
al reviewed the effect of environment condition and dust deposition on the
performance of PV module. They concluded that the most effective dust- removal
method depends on climate conditions at the site of interest. There is no fixed
recommended frequency of module cleaning as this strongly depends on the
frequency of local dust storms.

 

The major emphasis of
this review is to study the loss in the output power of PV module due to the
dust deposition which is the function of environmental factors such as
temperature, wind speed , wind direction, humidity, rainfall, solar
irradiation, dust properties and  installation factor such as orientation, tilt
angle, altitude, seasonal tilt
adjustment and location of installation. The deposition of dust
on photovoltaic modules is of importance as parameter for economic analysis and
life cycle assessments to evaluate this kind of technology for generation of
electricity. It also focuses on the some of the past, current and promising
future approaches for mitigating method of dust deposition on the PV module.
This paper accumulates detail information on the dust deposition, properties, and
factors affecting the dust deposition and mitigation techniques.

 

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