GLOBALIZATION have negotiated dramatic reductions in barriers to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GLOBALIZATION

 

       Globalization is a process
of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of
different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has effects on the
environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world. Globalization,
while showing itself in new ways, has been a part of the human history. With
regards to the history of globalization,
globalization first took form during the time of initial migration by humans
out of the African continent and into other lands. As human history continued,
due to local conditions, humans lacking access to hunting and finding food had
to move for new resources. Then, as they continued to spread throughout the
earth and establish additional communities, they then started to produce more
advanced tools, and then, in time, began trading with other communities. But
policy and technological developments of the past few decades have spurred
increases in cross-border trade, investment, and migration so large that many observers
believe the world has entered a qualitatively new phase in its economic
development. Since 1950, for example, the volume of world trade has increased
by 20 times, and from just 1997 to 1999 flows of foreign investment nearly
doubled, from $468 billion to $827 billion. Distinguishing this current wave of
globalization from earlier ones, author Thomas Friedman has said that today
globalization is “farther, faster, cheaper, and deeper.” This current wave of
globalization has been driven by policies that have opened economies
domestically and internationally. In the years since the Second World War, and
especially during the past two decades, many governments have adopted
free-market economic systems, vastly increasing their own productive potential
and creating myriad new opportunities for international trade and investment.
Governments also have negotiated dramatic reductions in barriers to
commerce and have established international agreements to promote trade in
goods, services, and investment. Taking advantage of new opportunities in
foreign markets, corporations have built foreign factories and established
production and marketing arrangements with foreign partners. A defining feature
of globalization, therefore, is an international industrial and financial
business structure. There are many types of
globalization. The four that we shall primarily five on are: Economic
Globalization, Environmentalism Globalization, Military Globalization, Cultural
Globalization, and Political Globalization.

Economic
Globalization

Economic Globalization has been defined by Gao Shangquan as “the increasing
interdependence of world economies as a result of the growing scale of
cross-border trade of commodities and services, flow of international capital
and wide and rapid spread of technologies. It reflects the continuing expansion
and mutual integration of market frontiers”. Historically, economic
globalization was barely different from other forms of globalization; often
economic, political, and cultural globalization were interconnected. As we see,
economic globalization is happening all around us. Technologies are advancing
at a rapid rate, which shapes how we do business. Transactions can be made with
the click of a button, and markets can be monitored around the clock. In
addition, companies can set up shop in any part of the world, as well as having
a very established internet presence with extensive online activity.

       And with economic globalization is also
the issue of how states and non-state actors can help address challenges such
as economic development. Here, we see international organizations,
as well as non-governmental organizations actively trying to help states in
terms of building infrastructure, increasing jobs, as well as introducing
capital (Smallman & Brown, 2011). But as we shall see, it is debated as to
whether some of these developments are always positive some worry that with
globalization, powerful states and multinational corporations have used the
system to further their own power and influence at the expense of other weaker
actors. The internet and Television has had an important role in
the globalizing the economies of Asia. The ease in which information can be
passed from one person to another has provided many benefits to Asian society.
It has created tighter cooperation within regions dealing with natural disaster
as well as improving education and quality of living for children and adults.
It is also the case that improved networking and information systems pose
significant risks, such as the spread of dangerous ideologies, such as Islamic
Radicalism. The Globalization of media has helped stop the
practice of non-intervention in East Asian countries and instead has sparked an
attitude of regional co-operation. This collaborative attitude, proved
to be effective in dealing with disease control, in particular the SARS
outbreak in 2003 as well as the bird flu outbreak of 2004. International media
coverage assisted in publicizing the Indian Ocean Tsunami disaster and made
states more able to react in an efficient and effective manner. Cable
Television has had a massive effect on the spread of information in Asia, and
is becoming one of the most important medians of knowledge. In Pakistan,
Television has become the most popular form of entertainment. Now many Pakistanis
are able to access scientific information and can
be notified of important events happening all over the globe. These factors
have not only increased awareness, but improved quality of life, as well.

 

        A
disadvantage of this heightened availability of knowledge is that it can spread
ideas that can be damaging to society. The internet has allowed the spread of
fundamentalist movements such Islamic Radicalism throughout parts of South-East
Asia, particularly in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. These extremist
groups pose a significant threat to the national security to South East Asian
countries. This was especially relevant to the social unrest in Indonesia
during the 1990s. Radical groups had become aware of terrorist activities in other
parts of the globe, which lead to copycat methods of terrorism in their own
countries. There is also a lot of evidence that suggests that the internet has
affected traditional merchandising businesses and services in Asia.
E-commerce websites that provide internet users with the luxury of being
able to view catalogues and purchase products
over the internet, pose a massive threat to large portion
of the less-developed retail sector. There are even claims that internet
commerce destroys jobs and reinforces inequality in developing nations.
Take web maps for example. Businesses utilize
this popular form of navigation as an advertising platform. Looking at rich,
industrialized city on Google Maps, you will notice that the landscape is
marked full of restaurants and places of interest, whereas more impoverished,
but no less populated areas show up with nothing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Environmentalism
and Globalization

 

     Environmentalism
can be described as a social movement or as an ideology focused on the welfare
of the environment. Environmentalism seeks to protect and conserve the elements
of earth’s ecosystem, including water, air, land, animals, and plants, along
with entire habitats such as rainforests, deserts and oceans. Concepts dealing
with environmental issues include the management of natural resources,
overpopulation, commercial logging, urbanization and global warming. The
effects of human development ad activity have harmed and altered the earth’s
natural state. Environmentalism works to correct the damage as well as prevent
future destruction. Environmentalism began as a movement in the 1960s and
1970s. However, humanity’s relationship and dependence on the earth for
survival has existed since the beginning of time. Many cultures including
Native Americans, Aborigines, Africans and South Americans have understood this
interconnection with the natural world. Western cultures had a poor
understanding of this relationship as they separated themselves from the land
through technology and development. Beginning in the nineteenth century, the
Industrial Revolution caused many changes; Western people realized their
behavior had a negative impact on the environment (Stradling and Thorsheim
1999). In the growing industrial cities of London, New York and Chicago, coal
burning factories polluted the air and water while the need for lumber to build
factories and homes caused mass deforestation and subsequent destruction of
animal life.

      In the years proceeding World War II,
America experienced an economic boom. New technologies introduced atomic
energy, synthetic materials and chemicals, such as pesticides, which led to advancements
in agriculture and consumer products. The booming economy allowed the average
family to afford a house, automobile and other amenities at soaring rates.
Lands outside of cities were bulldozed for suburban development, new factories
emitted more pollution due to the production of more goods and larger numbers
of cars discharged additional exhaust; “pollution was the price of
economic progress” (Rome 2003, 525). As the prosperity of the postwar
years continued, the environmental consciousness of Americans awakened
regarding the effects of environmental destruction . Scholars and
environmentalists believe the beginning of the modern environmental movement
can be attributed to the 1962 publication of Silent Spring , a book by Rachel
Carson. Carson wrote a stunning cautionary book about pesticides and the
consequences to animal and human life. Today, debate surrounds the line where
government environmental control ends and the beginning of free-market
practices. Corporations were blamed as the biggest culprits in pollution and
destruction of land; pressure from the government, consumers and activists
forced corporations to clean up their behaviour and contamination. Costly
legislation imposed changes on corporations, but the consumer triggered a more
efficient market shift for environmentally-friendly companies. After all,
corporations depend on the consumer dollar. Negative publicity from activists,
increased media coverage and environmental sympathies caused consumers to
question from which companies to buy products. Many companies discovered new
technologies allowed decreased industrial waste and lowered manufacturing
costs; this pleased the consumer and improved the bottom line (Kharif, 2003).
While corporate motives to become more environmentally conscious have not been
entirely altruistic, corporate America has advanced the environmental cause.

     Environmentalism, although
accused of using fuzzy math and scare tactics, has become a highly accepted
movement by the American public. Fortunately, the advocacy of environmentalism
has evolved from t radical tactics and alienation into a complex and
interdependent relationship existing between environmentalists, corporations
and the government. Willingness of all three groups to cooperate, negotiate and
discuss solutions to problems has driven innovative concepts such as
market-based environmental reforms and sustainable economic developments. Environmentalism
has spawned numerous environmental groups in America and around the world. In
1972, the first major worldwide discussion on environmental issues was held at
a United Nations conference in Stockholm, Sweden, and attended by 114 nations
(Encyclopedia.com). The Stockholm conference was followed by The United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development, or Earth Summit, where discussions
revolved around the global conflict between economic development and
environmental protection (ibid.). America is a world role model as a political
and financial leader and its participation in world environmental efforts is
vital to the success of a healthier planet.

 

 

 

 

Military Globalization

  

       Military globalization is the increase
of range within which military power can be projected through the progress of
military organization and technology and the increasing strategic interrelation
first of regional systems and later of the global system. Similarly, to
economic globalization, military globalization involves sw integration of a
system as expressed in network of alliances. Contrary to economic and
socio-cultural globalization, strategic integration entails centralization
under a single command.