Human a country’s cultural asset and it also

Human
wildlife conflict is emerging as a major concern. Wildlife refers to the
animals who are not controlled by humans and are also known as the
undomesticated animals. Wildlife is understood by many people as a resource
which provides for humans. But wildlife is not a resource which is only used
for the benefit of humans. Animals can exist without human help. Animals as
well as humans are part of the ecological system and they both are affected by
ecological imbalances. Wildlife can be found in many ecosystems like forests,
deserts, plains, grasslands and other areas. It acts as a country’s cultural
asset and it also provides aesthetic value to man. It provides humans with
useful products like honey, leather, ivory etc.

Wildlife
is important for ecological and biological processes and it also provides
stability to different natural processes. Human beings are largely dependent on
wildlife for basic amenities. Wildlife provides many values to humans such as
physical utility that is for food and clothing, monetary utility, recreational
utility, scientific utility including the contributions of wildlife to the
development of science, for example, by studying wildlife scientists can know
more about ecology. It also provides ecological utility which includes the role
of wild life in maintaining the ecological balance, existence utility which
includes the need for wildlife for the existence of life on Earth.

Conflicts
between men and animals have been there since these beings came into life.
Initially humans were hunters and they killed animals for food, hide and other
products. Then they became hunter gatherers and started gathering herbs,
fruits, seeds etc. They lived as a hunter gatherer in ecosystems like forests
for a long period of time. After some time they understood that they can
cultivate their own crops and that they can domesticate and raise animals. When
humans started to expand their land and resources without thinking about the
environment it lead to the slow degradation of environment and also lead to
conflicts between the wild and the humans.

In
a human wildlife conflict both the parties suffer losses and both the parties
has an adverse effect upon each other. Humans do not have the ownership and
sole right to live on Earth but they behave like they are the owners of the
Earth. Human wildlife conflict has been there in the past but then the farmers
in the villages did not care if wild animals took a small part of their crops
but now as population increased there are more serious cases of conflicts.

The
rapid development and urbanization has resulted in increased cases of human
wildlife conflicts. The increasing war for space and food between humans and
animals is the main reason for human wildlife conflicts. The spaces for habitat
are shrinking and animals face a shortage of food and this forces them to come
into human settlements in search of food and space. Human populations are
growing and as a result humans need more space, water, food, etc. So they
expand their territory and invade the forests and other habitats. Forest have
been converted into agricultural lands and into industry and habitation. This
causes a reduction of resources and the animals come out into the human
territory. This causes an interaction between man and animals and conflict arise
between them. Because of this expansion of human territory deforestation as
well as fragmentation of migratory paths has happened. Due to deforestation,
population increase, development and climate changes human and wildlife are in
greater competition for acquiring space and other resources.

Human
wildlife conflict is an obstacle to wildlife conservation. Hunting and habitat
destruction have caused animal extinction and also endangered many species. It
is a serious threat to the continued survival of many species and is also a
threat to local human populations. The ecosystem is balanced and plants,
animals and other organisms depend on each other for survival. For example the
plants are known as producers as they produce their food with the help of sunlight,
water and other minerals. The animals who eat these plants are known as
herbivores animals and they are consumed by carnivorous animals. This is a food
chain and it includes many species and is very complicated. Every animal has
its own part in the ecosystem. When a species becomes extinct it affects the
ecosystem as a whole. Wild animals which were in large numbers in the forest
were hunted for food, sport and other purposes.

When
conflict arise between humans and animals there is a chance for injuries and
loss of life of both parties. But in most of these conflicts the victims are
the animals. The main results of conflicts are loss of crops, loss of
livestock, loss of human life and property, damage to property, stealing,
snatching and loss of grains. All these conflicts occurs due to human activity
and animals come out because humans expand their territory by exploiting the
natural habitat of animals. Many animals like deer, rodents, wild boar and
birds cause damage to crops especially those located on the boundary of forests
and along the protected areas where these animals live in large numbers. In
areas rich in wild population there is an increased risk of loss of livestock
especially when animals are sent for grazing in forest rich in predators. Cases
of injury and loss of human lives are increasing due to attack of tiger,
elephant, leopard, snakes, etc. Damages to houses and other properties by
animals like elephants arise due to conflicts. Animals who are comfortable in
crowded places and who mingle with humans easily like monkeys steal and snatch
food and other things from people. Crops especially grains are destroyed by
animals like mice, rather, rodents etc

The
animals as well as the humans has to suffer due to degradation and destruction
of wildlife habitats for the selfish needs of the people. The growing human
invasion into the wilderness have resulted in increased attacks by the wild
animals who come in contact with people because they are forced to move into
the inhabited areas due to loss of habitat. In most cases people blame the
animals for encroaching into human settlements but the real reason for human
wildlife conflicts are the humans themselves. The reckless developmental
activities, felling of trees, hunting and all contributes to an adverse impact
on the wildlife. People have no respect or tolerance for wildlife and they
often kill animals without any remorse.

Due
to human intervention and conflicts between man and animal there are disruptive
changes in the ecological balance and this poses a serious environmental
challenge. Overpopulation of both humans and animals leads to human animal
interaction and conflicts and the solution to this serious problem is always in
favour of the people and the animals are considered not important enough to be
saved. This causes a lot of unwanted deaths of animals and imbalances in
ecological processes. This effects all lifeforms equally and all of this is
caused due to conflicts which arises due to human activities.

Humans
adopt an anthropocentric view to human wildlife conflicts. This way of thinking
is another reason for human wildlife conflict. Anthropocentrism says that
humans are the central and most important specie on Earth and also considers
humans as a different being who is superior to all other life forms. They can
utilise and exploit resources like plants, water, land, animals etc. They do
not give importance to any other lifeforms and do not care if resources got
depleted due to over utilisation and also do not care if species became extinct
due to human activities. It believes that the view of humans are the main
feature of morality and hence sees nature in terms of its value to humans.
Anthropocentrism can be seen even in the story of creation in the book of
Genesis in the Bible in which God creates man in His image and gave him the
permission to dominate over the other beings on the Earth.

Some
anthropocentric philosophers does not agree with the fact that resources on
Earth are limited and that over utilisation of resources can lead to the depletion
of resources. It also rejects the idea that if there is rapid increase in
population the Earth will become unable to satisfy all the needs of the life
forms which may lead to wars, famines, conflicts etc. These philosophers say
that the idea about limited resources is exaggerated or that the technology can
be developed in order to solve the problem of scarcity of resources. They also
states that there is no need for imposing control to protect the resources and
environment.

Some
other environmentalists have said that it is possible to value and respect the
environment without completely discarding anthropocentrism. It is also known as
enlightened anthropocentrism and it says that humans have an ethical and moral
obligation towards environment but that it can be justified in terms of
obligation to other humans. For example, environmental pollution can be seen as
a negative factor as it adversely affects the people. Also the wastage and
unwanted use of resources is seen as a negative factor as it prevents the
future generations from having these resources.

Humans
should move away from the anthropocentric views and should realise that it is
their moral duty or obligation to protect the environment. Humans should
realise that it is their activities which causes conflicts and other disruption
in the natural ecosystem and they should think about all the organisms on the
Earth and also about how human activities negatively affects these organisms.
They should start to develop their moral values and should move away from the
selfish ways and from the idea that they are the most important beings on
Earth. Human beings are not superior to all other beings and the environment
has its own value and is not valuable just because it provides for humans.