INFORMATION heavy registers. Further this report includes a

INFORMATION
SYSTEM

Introduction

Information can be
described as organized form of data to help answers questions and solve
problems. Information system helps analyze and organize the various forms of
data. Information system is a set of coordinated network components that
generate, distribute and processes information. Earlier forms of information
system can be found in form of drawings and books and now it undergone various
upgradations with advancements in technology so it can be seen now in form of
cloud storage instead of storing records in heavy registers. Further this
report includes a brief description of advancements results in evolution of
information systems, system components and types then ending report with
advantages and disadvantages of information system followed by conclusions.

 

Keywords: information
system, information system advancements, components and types of information
system.

 

Advancements
in information systems

Ø  Mainframe
Era: Back in 1950s the era of room sized monster computers efficient to perform
calculations and can only be seen in universities or government agencies. In
1960s with software on these mainframe machines manufacturing process can also
be handled. Application used: custom-written MRP software.

Ø  PC
revolutions: first personal computer in 1970s, the Altair 8800 sparkled
entrepreneurs all over the world. With the announcement of Altair 8800
manufacturing of personal computers increased with a high speed. Later, in
1990s IBM provide permissions for their employees to bring their PCs with them
to workplace. That PCs were standalone and used for creating databases and
spreadsheets.

Ø  Client-server
computing: standalone PCs work by their own without sharing information with
others. With the introduction of client-server computing these standalone
systems started sharing the files within local area network. Software companies
come into play with task of developing applications to allow accessing same
data. This era also considered as an era of ERP that provide modules for
accounting, inventory and human resources. Applications used are Microsoft
products like Microsoft word Microsoft excel etc.

Ø  WWW
and E-commerce: with the access of WWW, companies started sharing their files
and documents over the internet with other organizations. Now computers can be
used also as communication device instead only as computation device. All
manual tasks turned online including shopping and business etc. businessmen
started buying expensive domain names for their online business websites. For
accessing internet various browsers can be used out of internet explorer,
google chrome browser etc.

Ø Post-pc
world: Desktop PCs are now replaced by laptops, smart phones results in
decreased sales for computers. Smart phones, with limited storage capacity move
to cloud storage, results in high usage of cloud computing. For continuous
advancements in technology new and updated ideas are put forwarded daily that
leads to ease of access for users.

Information
system components

Information system is
formed by a collaboration of various components that work collectively and
provide value to an organization. Components that form an information system
are: hardware and software components, network and databases, people and
processes.

 

 

Components

Description

Hardware

Hardware
components are physical devices like computer keyboards, drives, graphic and
sound cards etc.

Software

Set
of instructions that make the hardware to perform some actions. Software
components can further be divided as operating system software or simply
system software, procedures and application software.

Network

Network
component ensures the connectivity of a standalone system with the entire
world. This includes medium for communication and infrastructure support.

Data

Data
is a collection of facts and figures. These facts and figures if aggregated
and organized in tabular database format, could provide useful information
and comes out as a strong support for business activities.

People

System
analysts, help-desk workers, programmers, analysts are the essential elements
for information system and they must be trained well so that they can make efficient
use of information system capabilities.  

 

Information
System types

Ø  Management
support system

Ø  MSS
(Management information system) provide information in form of reports that are
displayed to managers

Ø  DSS
(Decision support system) helps in decision making. Out of various solutions it
selects for the appropriate solution.

Ø  EIS
(Executive information system) specialized form of DSS that facilitates the
needs for decision making. It helps top executives to compare, analyze and
highlight important decisions and identify various problems.

Ø  Operations
support system

Ø  TPS
(Transaction processing system) handles business transactions. It mainly works
using real time and batch processing systems that handles transactions as
immediately and over a period of time.

Ø  ECS
(Enterprise collaboration system) facilitates sharing important files and
documents between the work groups using enterprise communication tools like
video conferencing and collaborative software.

Ø  PCS
(Process control system) monitors physical processes. It informs user about automatic
inventory reorders using sensor devices. 

Advantages
of Information System

Ø  Instant
communication using video and voice calls and messages becomes easy and quick.

Ø  Online
websites allow businesses to provide services to their customer throughout the
day whenever customers ask for.

Ø  Customer
can access information using internet services without considering any
geographical boundaries at any time they want.

Ø  User
gain access to dynamically real time updated information. Information systems
are adaptable to change and can be modified as per requirements.

Disadvantages
of Information System

Ø  Information
over the network, if stored without considering security constraints, prone to
attacks by malicious users performing man-in-middle attack. Most of the hackers
target organizational data that includes intellectual property, employees or
customer records and bank account details.

Ø  Globalization
affects the dominant cultures of countries. Eg. Youngsters from various regions
follow trends of the US people and their own cultures become overshadowed.

Ø  Manual
work employee numerous individuals to performs various tasks. With advancements
in technology work is now handled by computer software leads to decreased human
interference hence increased unemployment.

Ø  Companies
are now not able to provide job security to their employees because at any time
new staff will be required by company for handling new technical queries. In
order to secure a job, one needs to keep in touch with regular technological updates.

References

Ø  http://www.managementstudyguide.com/types-of-information-systems.htm

Ø  http://www.bbamantra.com/introduction-information-system/

Ø  https://bus206.pressbooks.com/chapter/chapter-1/

Ø  https://blogs.deusto.es/master-informatica/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-information-systems/

 

 INFORMATION
SYSTEM

Introduction

Information can be
described as organized form of data to help answers questions and solve
problems. Information system helps analyze and organize the various forms of
data. Information system is a set of coordinated network components that
generate, distribute and processes information. Earlier forms of information
system can be found in form of drawings and books and now it undergone various
upgradations with advancements in technology so it can be seen now in form of
cloud storage instead of storing records in heavy registers. Further this
report includes a brief description of advancements results in evolution of
information systems, system components and types then ending report with
advantages and disadvantages of information system followed by conclusions.

 

Keywords: information
system, information system advancements, components and types of information
system.

 

Advancements
in information systems

Ø  Mainframe
Era: Back in 1950s the era of room sized monster computers efficient to perform
calculations and can only be seen in universities or government agencies. In
1960s with software on these mainframe machines manufacturing process can also
be handled. Application used: custom-written MRP software.

Ø  PC
revolutions: first personal computer in 1970s, the Altair 8800 sparkled
entrepreneurs all over the world. With the announcement of Altair 8800
manufacturing of personal computers increased with a high speed. Later, in
1990s IBM provide permissions for their employees to bring their PCs with them
to workplace. That PCs were standalone and used for creating databases and
spreadsheets.

Ø  Client-server
computing: standalone PCs work by their own without sharing information with
others. With the introduction of client-server computing these standalone
systems started sharing the files within local area network. Software companies
come into play with task of developing applications to allow accessing same
data. This era also considered as an era of ERP that provide modules for
accounting, inventory and human resources. Applications used are Microsoft
products like Microsoft word Microsoft excel etc.

Ø  WWW
and E-commerce: with the access of WWW, companies started sharing their files
and documents over the internet with other organizations. Now computers can be
used also as communication device instead only as computation device. All
manual tasks turned online including shopping and business etc. businessmen
started buying expensive domain names for their online business websites. For
accessing internet various browsers can be used out of internet explorer,
google chrome browser etc.

Ø Post-pc
world: Desktop PCs are now replaced by laptops, smart phones results in
decreased sales for computers. Smart phones, with limited storage capacity move
to cloud storage, results in high usage of cloud computing. For continuous
advancements in technology new and updated ideas are put forwarded daily that
leads to ease of access for users.

Information
system components

Information system is
formed by a collaboration of various components that work collectively and
provide value to an organization. Components that form an information system
are: hardware and software components, network and databases, people and
processes.

 

 

Components

Description

Hardware

Hardware
components are physical devices like computer keyboards, drives, graphic and
sound cards etc.

Software

Set
of instructions that make the hardware to perform some actions. Software
components can further be divided as operating system software or simply
system software, procedures and application software.

Network

Network
component ensures the connectivity of a standalone system with the entire
world. This includes medium for communication and infrastructure support.

Data

Data
is a collection of facts and figures. These facts and figures if aggregated
and organized in tabular database format, could provide useful information
and comes out as a strong support for business activities.

People

System
analysts, help-desk workers, programmers, analysts are the essential elements
for information system and they must be trained well so that they can make efficient
use of information system capabilities.  

 

Information
System types

Ø  Management
support system

Ø  MSS
(Management information system) provide information in form of reports that are
displayed to managers

Ø  DSS
(Decision support system) helps in decision making. Out of various solutions it
selects for the appropriate solution.

Ø  EIS
(Executive information system) specialized form of DSS that facilitates the
needs for decision making. It helps top executives to compare, analyze and
highlight important decisions and identify various problems.

Ø  Operations
support system

Ø  TPS
(Transaction processing system) handles business transactions. It mainly works
using real time and batch processing systems that handles transactions as
immediately and over a period of time.

Ø  ECS
(Enterprise collaboration system) facilitates sharing important files and
documents between the work groups using enterprise communication tools like
video conferencing and collaborative software.

Ø  PCS
(Process control system) monitors physical processes. It informs user about automatic
inventory reorders using sensor devices. 

Advantages
of Information System

Ø  Instant
communication using video and voice calls and messages becomes easy and quick.

Ø  Online
websites allow businesses to provide services to their customer throughout the
day whenever customers ask for.

Ø  Customer
can access information using internet services without considering any
geographical boundaries at any time they want.

Ø  User
gain access to dynamically real time updated information. Information systems
are adaptable to change and can be modified as per requirements.

Disadvantages
of Information System

Ø  Information
over the network, if stored without considering security constraints, prone to
attacks by malicious users performing man-in-middle attack. Most of the hackers
target organizational data that includes intellectual property, employees or
customer records and bank account details.

Ø  Globalization
affects the dominant cultures of countries. Eg. Youngsters from various regions
follow trends of the US people and their own cultures become overshadowed.

Ø  Manual
work employee numerous individuals to performs various tasks. With advancements
in technology work is now handled by computer software leads to decreased human
interference hence increased unemployment.

Ø  Companies
are now not able to provide job security to their employees because at any time
new staff will be required by company for handling new technical queries. In
order to secure a job, one needs to keep in touch with regular technological updates.