The paper looks to break down the British Rule in India, the separation, the brutality, and the various reforms carried out by them. The debate regarding whether India did truly profit by the Colonizer, or whether the British utilized the nation for its own particular selfish needs is to be answered. The paper tries to look into all actualities, consider every one of the perspectives, and reach a conclusion to the same. Despite every one of the focuses for the same, India did not profit by the Colonization in view of the uncontrolled misuse by the Britons of the Indians, going to extraordinary degree to satisfy their narrow minded needs, constraining heartless abuse, performing racial segregation, and the enormous measure of viciousness led against the Indian citizens.
In perspective of the above claim, following are a portion of the focuses that demonstrate that India was only misused all through the 200 years of its Colonized rule-
· Divide and Rule Policy: The Divide and Rule policy was first implemented when the administration decided to rule and govern all the significant British provision states and Indian Princely states. The policy initially appeared during the rule of Lord Curzon Viceroy, who partitioned the Bengal territory into three sections i.e. Eastern Bengal and Assam as the Muslim majority states and the Hindu majority state of West Bengal, which was a colossal blow to the nation because it drove and made noteworthy outrage among the countrymen. Not just this, the greatest divide and rule strategy showed up at the time of independence when the nation was partitioned into two parts- one being India and the other being Pakistan, without a clear-cut division of National Borders, the gravity of which can still be seen amid the conflict between India and Pakistan.
· Implementation of Tax structure: The legislature forced illiberal duty structure and used to gather high charges and furthermore more prominent profit for benefits. In any case, the burden of this highly taxed regime fell on the shoulders of small peasants, farmers, and small traders.
· Loss of lives: Under the administration of British government, the nation endured the loss of many lives, for example, in Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, the defiance of 1857, and so forth. Amid the World War, the British government used to enroll numerous Indian subjects to join the troops regardless of whether they were interested, which further brought about misfortune and loss of lives. The legislature could not have cared less about the general population; they were busy thinking about their reputation and prestige, and making marks in world history.
· Exploitation of resources: The administration properly misused the resources and assets of the nation and traded them in other countries with a specific end goal to acquire revenue and capture the trade market.
In this paper, we would study the rise of the East India Company in India, the British Rule, and seizing of Power in India. We would then begin to take a look at different issues and why the different viewpoints expressed in favor of the British are phony and shallow, and underneath lies only egotistical reasons in promulgation to their motivation.
In the year 1757, the East India Company began its operations in the Indian Subcontinent. India was then a land of a number of princely states, ruled by the Mughals at the Centre. It was likewise a tremendous exporter of silk, indigo, spices, and so forth. During its first century operation, the company concentrated on trade, not on building up of an empire in India. As time passed, the company turned its trade interests into territorial ambitions. The decaying control of the Mughal Empire during the eighteenth century and the battle of East India Company with its French Counterpart, the French East India Company during the Carnatic wars of the 1740s and 1750s further gave mileage to their already high hopes. The battles of Plassey and Buxar, in which the British vanquished the Indian powers, left the company in control of Bengal, a major part of military and political power in India. In the next few decades, it skillfully expanded the number of regions in control to finally govern the entire Indian Subcontinent either directly or indirectly via local puppet rulers. The British rule is hailed by a large number of countrymen as a face-saver for India, citing various reasons. Following are some of them:
· Social Reforms: British raj in India had passed various legislations for the nation, for example abrogation of the Sati Pratha, introduction of various acts like the Widow Remarriage Act of 1856, the Child marriage restraint Act, Act against child labor, and various other acts to enhance the social conventions and customs for the betterment of Indian citizens.
· Educational reforms: During the British Raj, the traditional education system changed with the introduction of English as a compulsory subject and an official language. The University of Bombay, Kolkata and Madras were established in the year 1857, just before the rebellion. The colleges are still present and being controlled by the Indian government. Also, they are currently considered as some of the most renowned colleges in the country.
· Employment Scheme: The British government additionally introduced the Indian Civil Service for different esteemed posts under the administration. The Imperial Civil Service is currently known as the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), which is conducted by the UPSC. It is also considered the toughest and the most prestigious examination in India.
· Modern irrigation systems: The administration also built several waterways and dams for the development of irrigation system in India.
· Infrastructure development: During the administration of British government, various infrastructural programmes were carried out. The Indian communication and transport facilities were also developed. The legislature also built India’s first railways service in the year 1853-54 in Bombay and Calcutta by the two railway companies i.e. the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR) and East Indian Railway (EIR). After 5 years, in the year 1859, the first passenger line was started in North India between Allahabad and Kanpur.
· Monuments, Legal Tenders, Heritage Site: The government had also introduced the legal tender as an official medium of exchange during the time trading. Likewise they had constructed several heritage sites and monuments, some of them being the Victoria Memorial Hall in Kolkata, Victoria Terminus (now termed as Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus), The Gateway Of India, Viceroy’s House (now called as Rashtrapati Bhavan), and Asiatic Society of India, keeping in mind the end goal to protect the Indian landmarks, scholarly content and some more.
England’s exploitative, bigot imperial project in India was marvelous in its viciousness and perniciousness, what Tharoor calls a “long and shameless record of rapacity “. The current books are a welcome counteractant to the disgusting uprightness and loftiness accelerated by Niall Ferguson in his 2003 book Empire, which contends that British government provided for the world its splendid and unmistakable highlights (language, banking, representative assemblies, the idea of liberty) and that India, “the world’s largest democracy, owes more than it is fashionable to acknowledge to British rule”.
In his book Inglorious Empire, Tharoor sets out vigorously, obtusely and swiftly, to point out to the world the litany of exploitation and theft, and the help given toward the East India Company. This was before the Government of India Act of 1858 drove the British crown to assume direct control. The company had a private armed force of 260,000 at the beginning of the nineteenth century, and the champions of the British industrial revolution plundered India’s thriving manufacturing industries.
Under British rule, India’s share of world’s manufacturing exports tumbled from 27 per cent to 2 per cent as East India workers made goliath fortunes. The marquess of Salisbury, secretary of state for India in the 1870s, commented that “India is to be bled”, and before the end of the nineteenth century it was Britain’s greatest wellspring of income.
” To stop is dangerous; to recede ruin ” was the rationale, as articulated right on time by Robert Clive, commander in chief of British India in the mid-eighteenth century. The Indian transportation industry was decimated and Indian controlled, while tariffs, duties and regulations were skewed to support British industry.
Tharoor likewise crushes the British brag that in 1947, it left in India a working democracy. What’s more, despite the fact that he may misrepresent the degree to which precolonial village self-rule was, he exposes the hollowness of Queen Victoria’s 1858 proclamation that “in their prosperity will be our strength, in their contentment our security and in their gratitude our best reward”.
This encouraged a court culture for Indian princess to follow, and there were numerous dissolute rajas, yet only 4 per cent of the coveted positions in the Indian Civil Service were filled by Indians till as late as 1930. Jawaharlal Nehru was cutting in his expulsion of a civil service that was “neither Indian, nor civil, nor a service”.
By 1890 around 6,000 British authorities ruled 250 million Indians, yet there was likewise a “cravenness, cupidity, opportunism and lack of organized resistance on the part of the vanquished”.
At last, it was the ascent of Mahatma Gandhi and his advancement of the ethical esteems derived from Satyagraha (nonviolent resistance) that “proved a repudiation of British liberalism and not its vindication”.