Introduction influencing’, ‘a social context of followership’ and


essay will be analysing the development of management and leadership theories
over the last hundred years. Using various pieces of literature (Buchanan and
Huczynski, 2017; Liborius, 2017; French et al., 2015; Conger, 1999), the
transformational leadership theory will be further explored in-depth. A
critical reflection on the literatures reviewed would also be analysed and
applied in practise. Furthermore, personal reflections on the overall module in
regards to management and leadership, action plans in employing the knowledge
derived from the research conducted as well as key success indicators would be
identified. To conclude, assumptions would be drawn from the analysed research.

is Management

stated by French et al. (2015, p289), management can be defined as a process
which is “…more concerned with promoting stability and enabling the
organisation to run smoothly” that also “…involves planning, organizing,
leading and controlling the use of organizational resources”. Various works of
literature have also been recognised to support this viewpoint on defining
management, with the inclusion of achieving organisational goals (Solomon,
Costea and Nita, 2016; Mintzberg, 2009; Kotter, 2006; Perloff, 2004 in Toor and
Ofori, 2008; Zimmerman, 2001; Maccoby, 2000; Zaleznik, 1977). However, other
studies further define managers as individuals whose authority is derived simply
from position and power (Daft, 2003; Capowski, 1994).

is Leadership

shows that there are no collectively agreed definition for leadership (Goethals
et al., 2004). This is due to the distinct behaviours leaders demonstrate in
engaging and influencing their followers (Fiedler, 1969). However, according to
Buchanan and Huczynski (2017, p598), leadership is “the process of influencing
the activities of an organised group in its effort toward goal setting and goal
achievement”. In line with this definition, a prominent early observer, Ralph
Stogdill (1950), defined leadership as an ‘interpersonal process of influencing’,
‘a social context of followership’ and ‘a goal achievement driver’. Maccoby
(2000) further distinguishes leaders as agents of change. Nevertheless, it has
been argued that networked and virtual organisational forms, knowledge work,
self-managing teams and flat structures, due to symbolism and hierarchy have
been recognised to cause a decline in the effectiveness of traditional
leadership (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2017).

and informal leadership can be identified as two forms of leadership (Buchanan
and Huczynski, 2017). An official authority given by an organisation to execute
power to influence the achievement of goals is a formal leadership, while the
exercising of resources and exceptional skills in influencing goals achievement
is an informal leadership (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2017). Hence, bringing the proposed
definitions of management and informal leadership side by side (French et al.,
2015; Buchanan and Huczynski, 2017).

vs Management

and leadership are often used interchangeably (Ofori and Shamas, 2008). Some
literatures have stated that leadership is merely a feature of a management
role (Mintzberg, 2009), as others claim there is a distinction between
management and leadership (French et al., 2015; Perloff, 2004 in Toor and
Ofori, 2008; Daft, 2003; Robbins, 2002; Zimmerman, 2001; Maccoby, 2000; Kumle
and Kelly, 1999; Zaleznik, 1997; Capowski, 1994; Kotter, 1990, 2006; Bennis,
1989; Bennis and Nanus, 1985).

and Huczynski (2017) states that management and leadership can be separated
conceptually, yet, questioning its application in practise. According to Ofori
and Shamas (2008), managers have been recognised to perform leadership roles
and vice-versa. However, Mawson (2001) still argues that more often the case,
in practise, things don’t work out that way. Although having philosophical
differences, management and leadership both share the mutual purpose of goal
attainment (Zimmerman, 2001). It is also believed that whilst leadership might
be essential, it may not be sufficient for an effective management (Paus,
2008). Hence, stating that if goals becomes the target, leadership versus
management becomes the process (Zimmerman, 2001).

of Management and Leadership Theories


Buchanan and Huczynski (2017) and French et al. (2015) identifies transactional
(Burns, 1978) and transformational (Tichy and Devanna, 1986; Bass, 1985a,
1985b; Bass and Avolio, 1990, 1994) leadership theories as the new and emerging
leadership, due to the gaps recognised in both philosophies, recent studies propose
authentic leadership as the modern approach to leadership (reference).