Introduction: media coverage.[4]• Least marginal cost of online

                                 Introduction: In this Modern
era, cybercrime has become a buzzword. Actually, Cybercrime means illegal activity through
computer or related devices as a tool and the internet as a connection in order
to reach a variety of objectives .1Hackers were first started cybercrime
by trying to break into computer networks.1 Some of them had done it only for
the thrill of accessing high-level security networks, but others for sought to
gain many sensitive, classified and secret materials.1 Criminals started to
infect computer networking systems with viruses that leads to breakdowns
on  business as well as personal
computers.1 Nowadays, hackers and other criminals in the
virtual world are always trying to get the most sensitive and secret data &
information at least amount cost by viruses and also other types of malicious
soft-wares.2Infact, the Internet is the largest
chain of computer network that are connected together which had a great impact
to connect us globally by allowing the transmission of information, messages,
and data 2.Besides these opportunities, Unfortunately this largest network
connectivity also allows lawless individuals to communicate with other lawless
individuals as well as with their victims.2In this
assignment, we will try to discuss about cybercrime in detail including the
types, methods, technical reasons and adverse impact of cyber crimes on a
network as well as the behavior , psychology behind this crime & some
effective solutions . Some common Cybercrimes are:61.
Phishing Scams2. Online Scams3. Malware4. Email Bombing5. Virus Dissemination6. Logic Bombs7. Theft8. Social Media Hack & Spamming9. Electronic Money Laundering10. Sales & Investment Fraud11. Eavesdropping & Surveillance12. Software Piracy13. Data Diddling14. Salami Slicing Attack15. Hacking(website ,social
account)16. Cyber Stalking17. Cyber Bullying18. Identity Theft19. Child Soliciting & Abuse20. Ransomware Technical Reasons : There are many technical reasons
behind these crimes. Some technical reasons behind cyber crimes are as follows: •     
Lack
of reporting and standards4•     
Tough
to identify4•     
Limited
media coverage.4•     
Least
marginal cost of online activity due to global 
reach.4•     
A
very few rate of Official investigation and criminal prosecution4•     
Capability
of computer to store data in comparatively small space.4•     
Easy
to access4•     
Complexities
in operating systems code4•     
Lake
of evidence4•     
Negligence4•     
Loopholes
in systems5•     
Confidential
information in online5 The threats of cybercrime to the
network security are not only for several organizations, but can be observed
all over the world indifferent countries. Relative risk of running computer networks
around the world are shown bellow:2

Name of the Country

            
Parcentages(%)

Chile

                     
61%

China

                     
45%

South Koria

                     
35%

US

                       
7%

Germany

                       
7%

Japan

                       
6%

UK

                       
6%

Sweden

                       
4%

Narway

                       
3%

 Network security:2Its very alarming for our country also. Now, its
urgent to prevent cyber crimes. So we all should try to use proper network
security.Some  common types of Information Security Network  Protection( ISNP) packages are as
follows:1.BlackIce2.Conseal PC3.Tiny4.Protect X5.Sygate Firewall6.Win Route Pro7.Zone Alarm8.At Guard 9.Esafe Desktop 10.Hack tracer10.InternetFirewall 2000  Benefits of Network Securities:
Network securities are very essential to prevent cyber crimes due to many
benefits  such as:1.Reduces unauthorized lawless
individuals from accessing someone’snetwork.22.Gives transparent & legal
access to Internet-enabled users.23.Ensure that the  sensitive data & information is
transferred safely by the public network.24.Provide network managers to
search and fix security problems.25.Gives a effective system of
warning alarms attempt to access network.2 Behavior of criminals:We have known  about cyber crime as well as its types,
impact, technical reasons in previous discussion. But it is also very important to
know about the behavior or psychology of criminals behind cyber crimes. Because
who involves in  thisbehavior have also become a part
of our  society.8 But there is a
difference between computer criminals and non-computer criminals moral choice and
exploitive or manipulative behaviors.8 Self-reported computer criminalswere always higher on
manipulative behaviors but on moral choice internal and
moral choice social, they were lower.8 A research had been done by an
organization with 77 participants from a mid western university Enrolled in the
college of technology .Among these participants 87% were male and 13% were female(Table-1)
.8 The mean age was taken 21years.Mainly, participants are the representative
of the largest population of interested individuals of  17–30 years age who make up the majority of
those individuals engaged in criminal behavior.8   Table-1:8  

Participants

Percentage
 

Gender

 

Male

86.8%

Female

13.2%

Age

 

18–20

51.4
(35)

21–23

39.7

24-27

7.4

27-older

1.5

Ethnicity

 

white

85.3%

Asian
American

8.5%

African
American

1.5%

Indian

1.5%

Asian

1.5%

Asian(Indian)

1.5%

Major

 

Comp.
Tech

91.2%

Comp.
Graphics

1.5%

Comp.
Science

1.5%

Others

5.9%

   It have been
also found by this research that they had engaged in these following activities
such as:8 1.Trying to guess passwords.2.Trying to use other’s password
without authorization.3.Creating or using  a virus.4 Obtaining a device for  free phone calls.5. Trying to get someone’s credit card data without authorization.6.. Observing at others’ files without
authorization.7. Modifying or changing others’ files without
authorization. Actually, there are some psychological
reasons behind these behavior such as•     
Official
investigation and criminal prosecution is rare.5•     
Catching
by law and enforcement agency is less effective and more expensive.5•     
Passion
of youngsters5•      For
the sake of recognition.5•      Desire
of making quick money5•     
Create
new form of Crimes5•     
Accessibility
of victims5•     
Drawbacks
in judiciary system5  Besides Network securities we can also
reduce cyber crimes by taking some proper steps such as:•     
 Proper Investigation.7•     
Strong
Legislation.7•     
 Penalties.7•     
 Increasing Awareness.7•     
 Intelligent
activities7•     
Ensure proper security of our private data and
information.   Website Hacking:Websites
became a major part of our life for various purposes. But its very alarming
that, websites may be hacked by hackers. Website
hacking has become a great threat for businesses
developing an online presence.9Hackers are stealing secret data ,
information, taking control ,even shutting down any website. 10 The popularity of Web site hacking is mystifying.9 Actually, Hacking  of a Web site can affect the credibility and
reputation of the organization.9 But among many types of cyber crimes , Why
do hackers give effort to deface a Web site?9 There are some reasons behind
this.   Hackers can hack websites in many ways such as: 10 1.DDOs Attack(Distributed Denial of Service Attack): Make  unavailable
a website to the users.2. Remote
code execution attacks: Make security weak either the server side or client
side 3.Cross
site request forgery attacks: Hackers send to users a
forged HTTP request to collect their cookie information while they are logged
into a session or account.4.Symlinking-An
insider attack: happens when a hacker positions the symlink Which is a
special file that “points to” a hard link on a mounted file system, the user or
application that access the endpoint thinks that they are accessing the correct
file but they’re really not.5.DNS
Cache Poisoning: DNS Cache Poisoning attached old cache data, hackers can
identify vulnerabilities in a domain name system that allows to form traffic
from legit servers to a fake website .6.ClickJacking
Attacks( UI
Redress Attack): to trace a user into clicking the top layer without them
knowing by using multiple opaque layers.7.Brocken
Authentication and session management attacks: Passwords,
key management, session IDs, cookies are consists in authentication systems
that can allow a hacker to access the whole information from any website.8.XSS
attack: also known as cross site scripting attacks. It can occur
when an application, file packet, url “get request” is sent to any web browser
window and bypassing the validation process, for example, user may see a page
asking for their credit card info or any other private information. 9.Injection Attacks: it happens when
there are flaws in the SQL Database, SQL libraries or the operating system by
itself. Users might open the files
with hidden commands that’s make an opportunities to  hackers to get unauthorized access to
secret information as well as data as like credit card number or other
financial data. A hacker can
exploit vulnerabilities by  applying  multiple and various  techniques to hack a Web Site. So some techniques  must be applied  to prevent website hacking as well as keep
any website safe.   Some effective techniques for prevent website hacking are given bellow: 1. Keep software up to date
regularly.112. Toughen up  access control.93.Ensure OS
level protection94.Use  HTTP attack protection95. Use Web
server resources protection 96. Use
standard Transact SQL.117. Give strong
passwords11 8. Use HTTPS protocol to provide security over the
Internet.119Use Website
security tools such as Netsparker, OpenVAS, SecurityHeaders.io, Xenotix XSS, Exploit Framework  etc.1110. Tighten network security.311.
Hide admin pages.312.keep
 Limit file uploads.313.
Use SSL.314. keep
Back-up frequently.315. Use Server
side validation11Conclusion: We can not think our daily life
without computer as well as internet. The advantages of internet and computer
can not be described in one word. But they have also some demerits as like
cyber crimes. Its also became a part of our life. Criminals and victims both
are the part of our society. Now, the rate of various types of cyber crimes
increases rapidly. It must be reduced by keeping proper steps that’s are
already discussed in this paper for keeping safe our personal and private data
and information ,ensure the security of all types of websites and making
our  society clean & peaceful. References:1
“Jessica Schuber (2012) : What
is Cybercrime? – Definition, History, Types & Laws”Available
online at https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-cybercrime-definition-history-types-laws.html2 .  “Ammar Yassir, Smitha Nayak( February 2, 2012) : Cybercrime: A threat to Network Security” Available online at 
http://paper.ijcsns.org/07_book/201202/20120214.pdf3″ John
Rampton(20 January,2015): 12 Tips to Protect Your Company Website From
Hackers” Available online at https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/241620 4.
” 
UK
ESSAYS(23rd March, 2015): Cybercrime Problems And Solutions
Information Technology Essay” Available online at https://www.ukessays.com/essays/information-technology/cybercrime-problems-and-solutions-information-technology-essay.php5″ Calling off Cyber Crime:The Vulnerabilities and
causes” Available online at https://sites.google.com/site/callingoffcybercrime/the-causes-and-criminals6. “Silverbug :10
Types Of Cyber Crimes… And Another 10 You’ve Never Heard Of” Available
online at https://www.silverbug.it/blog/10-types-of-cyber-crimes…-and-another-10-youve-never-heard-of7  “Wikipedia
:CyberCrime”  Available online at  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybercrime 8″ Marcus
Rogers, Kathryn Seigfried, Kirti Tidke(2006):Self-Reported Computer Criminal Behavior:A
Psychological Analysis” Available online at http://www.dfrws.org/sites/default/files/session-files/pres-self-reported_computer_criminal_behavior_-_a_psychological_analysis.pdf 9 “Dr. Yona Hollander(2000):
prevent Website Defacement” http://ebooks.allfree-stuff.com/eBooks_down/Internet%20Security/WebSiteDefacement(InternetSecurityAdvisor).pdf10 “Shritam Bhowmick (june 14,2013): 10 MOST POPULAR WAYS HACKERS HACK YOUR
WEBSITE” Available online
at 
https://defencely.com/blog/10-popular-ways-hackers-hack-website/11 ” Ruald Gerber, Toby Compton, Tim Perry (January 24,
2017): 9 security tips to
protect your website from hackers” Available online at  https://www.creativebloq.com/web-design/website-security-tips-protect-your-site-7122853