Page and Sergey Brin co-founded Google LLC in 1998 with an ambition to organize
and provide information stored on the internet to the users whenever they
needed it. Gradually the name “Google” became well known across the globe as
the best search engine and an internet brand. In 2004, the firm became public
and issued an Initial Public Offering (IPO) in order to raise funds for its
future endeavours and to extend its technological and customer base. In August,
2015, Google reorganized various business activities into a conglomerate called
Alphabet Inc. providing Google to pay detailed attention to the products and
services it provides as well as to satisfy the consumers’ needs. Ever since
inception, the company has witnessed enormous and nourishing growth in almost
every aspect; be it revenue generated, market capitalization, number of
employees or profits. Starting its base as a search engine, Google has
performed a multinational technology giant that not only provides online search
support but also deals in a variety of internet related products and services,
namely; Google Maps, Google Docs, Google Home, Gmail, Smartphone OS Android,
Driverless vehicles, Google Energy, automated machines using artificial
intelligence, etc. Apart from these services, it has also taken part in a series
of acquisitions (Blogger, Applied semantics, YouTube, Motorola mobility) and partnerships
(AOL, GeoEye, and LG & Huawei for its smartphone brand lines – Nexus and
Page also known as Larry Page is a computer scientist and
with his knowledge and skill set was soon known as an internet entrepreneur. He is the backbone and an internal
disciplinarian who drives the force behind the company, giving it the ultimate
ambition and zeal of “open ideology”; the passion for creativity, and his
democratic leadership approach for constant and sustainable innovation to almost
everything that the company does today. He has always been the silent
penultimate power and the final decision maker inside Google.
is not just a company; it is an entirely new way of thinking.’ (Anderson, 2006,
as cited in Jarvis, 2011) Google has developed its ethics around the values of
creativity, openness, innovation, simplicity for the customer and building
connections throughout its journey. It has evolved from being a simple search
engine to actively participating and growing in every market segment possible.
Its decentralized approach helps enhance independence among employees and
channels them to think & perform more innovatively. Google’s search engine
ranks number 1 on the Alexa index, thereby proving to be the giant in the
world of search engines. In fact, the term ‘Google’ has evolved to become a
synonym to ‘internet’ where we often find ourselves saying, “Let’s Google it”
instead of “Let’s search it on the internet”.
business model consists of Google search, AdWords and AdSense which function
together and generate revenues for the search engine giant. Search helps users
to obtain relevant and most specific form of data which they wish to extract by
searching across the internet and retrieving the best possible results for the search.
AdWords enables users to create and publish their advertisements across
numerous locations on the internet, such as – search engine results pages
provides the technological support that enables AdWords to obtain the best
match and cater its advertisements to the right audience. The company provides
a product or service to the audience without charge anticipating seeking
maximum attention and eventually generating revenue through advertising,
sponsorship, etc. In order to maximize its reach the company dominated the
online search market by leveraging its networked economy and providing outstanding
range of online products and services to the customers.
to Kuratko, There are five specific dimensions that serve as important
determinants of an environment which is conducive to the company’s behaviour.
management support, work discretion/autonomy, rewards/reinforcement, time
availability, and organizational boundaries. (Kuratko et. al, 2014)
Top management support: At Google, each individual is expected to think beyond
the limits and develop ideas that are unconventional, unique and innovative.
Innovation is a key phenomenon that fuels the company and its employees based
on which their success is achieved. Management at each level primarily focus on
embedding these morals within the employees and ensure a comforting and
convenient rapport between the two. Entrepreneurial skill and thinking is one
of the most important qualities that are expected from all the employees.
Work discretion: Any idea is an opportunity to discover something new and does
not depend upon its success or failure. At Google, they believe that any
opportunity should not be cast off without experiencing. The delegation of
authority and responsibility is provided to the lower level management as well.
Employees are provided with a great amount of freedom along with responsibility
which they must use optimally.
Rewards and reinforcement: The company provides its employees with
extraordinary benefits some of which include free meals, sports and games
lounges, recreational facilities and much more inside the work environment
encouraging employees to feel at home and at the same time to set-free their
thoughts and imaginations in seek of continuous creativity and innovation.
Other ways in which the employees are rewarded is through shares, flexible work
hours, sufficient holiday period, bonuses, etc.
Time availability: Everybody at Google is given enormous amount of time to
ensure that they are stress free and that they work till their optimum
potential. There are various projects designed by the company in order to
facilitate interaction and activities across the entire workspace. For example:
The “20 percent” project focuses on providing employees with an opportunity to
spend 20 percent of their work week time on activities or ideas that suit their
Organizational boundaries: The organizational culture at Google is employee
friendly and customer oriented. It promotes any type of entrepreneurial
activity which might benefit the external as well as internal environment as a
whole. Innovation is inscribed within the work culture and is considered as a
structured and purposeful process. Through such vast opportunities of growth
and innovation the flow of information between the external environment and the
organization also increases. Organizational
boundaries within Google are set to the limit where there is no more scope of
innovation or improvement within the workplace and its employees.
and Policy Environment
Whilst most of the business generally decrease their workforce or cut
down on their activities during times of economical bane, Google’s sustainable
and innovative work model keeps it resilient to such events. In fact, it has
managed to constantly grow apace year after year showing no negative signs in
its economic performance and has constantly secured its position as a
The company has managed to maintain a stable and continuously growing
market share across the globe and till date plays a dominant role in the field
of search engines. The company works on firm internet guidelines and also has a
few policies of its own which have been mixed in the work culture. For example:
Providing the least amount of harm to the external environment while performing
its activities. Google has adhered to its policy by being carbon neutral since
a decade and aims to function on 100% renewable energy by this year.
Google aspires to create a means through which every aspect of
information can be found on the web by aiming to deliver what the customers or
the users of the web are searching for. The main aim of the people at Google is
to deal with the problem of delivering such services at a great speed along
with providing interesting data to encourage the customer to explore more.
Google had reached the average search target of 0.2 seconds which was much
better from the previous 3 seconds approximate. Google takes its two most
important assets; attention and trust of its customers very seriously and keeps
them as prime target objectives because they know that slow and inferior
results would lead to loss of their users.
Another aspect which Google deals with is by providing related data of
two different words that are connected. For example, if a user searches for
’emotional philosophy’ then Google Search must make sure it finds data relevant
to the desired term. Here the term has two words with different outlooks, this
is where Google’s search engine plays its role by selecting the most clicked
links from the searches and tries to make it even better by clearing out the
unwanted data along with adding further links for reference purposes; hence
enabling Google to distinguish between different data inputs at different
speeds so it can provide more useful and accurate data to the consumer.
Google also faced a problem of being able to interpret large amount of search
data from users from different nations, to be able to understand what the users
wanted and to be able to provide them the data required. It has not only been
able to find and provide accurate results of those words but has also improved
to provide the relation these words hold.
One of the major problems faced by Google is that it is lacking behind
in mobile apps segment as the most commonly used apps are the Facebook
Messenger, Snapchat, Instagram, WhatsApp which are all owned by Facebook. Google’s
approach towards fixing these problems is by leveraging its existing mobile
apps such as YouTube, Gmail and Google Maps which are highly operated on mobile
phones and will help grasp the users’ attention. The other approach it has
pursued is through creating or acquiring new messaging apps or enhancing chrome
and bringing in new features into the webpage interface.
In its internal environment, Google deals with that part of the society
that wants to be a part of the company or as they call it ‘Googlers’. They deal
with over 1500 resumes everyday and look for two kinds of people to maintain
their working sense as well as participate in the society. Majorly, they hire
PhDs from top programs and research labs and some who possess entrepreneurial skills
and risk taking attitude. The challenge here was negotiating between the risk
and caution. They had set up a team of managers who kept advising on what was
supposed to be done and how and tried to maintain a particular-way of doing things
for which Google had to fire that team as it contradicted with Google’s basic
values which gives its employees the freedom at work and to be able to get the
best out of their creative minds.
The company has no such strategic-planning department as it doesn’t
really restrict the employees from performing any task or idea but insists to
creed on innovation. Googlers are given importance and credit to create and
provide great results such as the Google news. In 2001 Krishna Bharat came up
with the idea of providing news to people by presenting latest news sources
once an hour and eventually making it available to be read by users. Later
Marissa Mayer got together and created ‘Google News’. Within a month and a half
it had 155 news sources along with a search function ad, which within weeks
generated 70,000 users per day, promoting the young engineer to a project
manager. This was the kind of freedom and encouragement given to the Googlers
to provide ideas and implement them freely.
threats and innovative solutions
to Larry Page, “The biggest threat to Google is Google itself”. (Miller, 2011).
Googlers believe that the greatest threat to the company is the lack in
innovation and entrepreneurial performance among the organization which would
deeply impact the functioning of the company. Employees at Google are given
freedom and are constantly urged to be innovative and quick in performing
actions in order to be able to deal with any threat with ease. However, apart
from itself, Google also faces threats from Apple in the Smartphone industry,
Amazon in the online shopping and artificial intelligence based home appliances
segment and from Facebook in the social networking app segment. But these
threats have not affected the company much as it has been constantly evolving
itself and improving the products and services offered in order to stay ahead
of the competition.
instance, apart from improving camera and screen quality, Google provides its
users with unlimited photo storage to stay ahead of Apple; it enhanced the
accuracy and efficiency of its artificial based appliance to dominate over its
rivals; and to get ahead of Facebook, it developed various social networking
apps such as Google+ and Duo.
has also leveraged its leading apps such as YouTube, Maps, Docs, etc. to
attract more audience and seize greater market share. The latest success in
innovation is the development of photographic memory in Google Photos which
enables users to enjoy what they capture and create. With the help of its AI
capabilities, the Google assistant can also compile and transform these stored
images into clips, animations, collages etc. It recognizes the person involved
in the picture and spontaneously compiles all pictures of that individual in a
entrepreneurs aim bring the various innovative start-ups and build new spaces
for their employees who are given the opportunity to be an entrepreneur themselves
by pitching in their own creative ideas, to improvise and reach their
potentials. Google has constantly been
able to keep up with is core values and basic principles of innovation and creative
major successes where the acquisition of YouTube, creation of google maps;
which not only acts as an individual app but also is the backbone of other
services like mapping locations, latitudes, and places, Gmail which has been a
vast platform of email program, purchase of android which is a great competitor
to IOS, the Verizon partnership in which has given the marketing push to
android mobile phones and other successful achievement is of partnering with
apple to create the search engine in iPhones which has made google the dominate
in the market of mobile search engines.
a company are these major things; a. the entrepreneur; which in this case has a
different outlook of business initiating to dig out the best in its employees
and the has the potential to prove its image and the company’s image a great
success, b. employees; who have been selected with specific abilities to think
out of the box and act as individual businessmen to have come up with ideas
such as google news, google wave and google reader, and c. the customers or the
users whose satisfaction and attention has been kept in mind as a major motive
where google aims in making life better and easier.
has shown in various stages how it has created new apps and expanded its firm
through the help of skilled internet entrepreneurs and creative ‘Googlers’. It has
faced many challenges from its competitors, users, economical and internal
technical issues; despite, which it has proved itself to be one of the
companies that has given its employees a second home and a platform where every
individual finds its solution. It has always dealt with creating solutions not
just for the users but for itself to be able to solve problems in a very original
and inventive manner.