Mongolia population consumes 1.5 times more biological resources

    Mongolia is a large country in the heart of Central Asia, with its territory three times bigger than France. And landlocked between China and Russia, the 2 major countries, Mongolia is divided into 7 natural zones of High Mountain Zone, Taiga Forest Zone, Mountain Forest Steppe Zone, Steppe Zone, Desert-Steppe Zone, Gobi Desert Zone, Wetlands. From north snowy mountain steppes to south scorching desert, the extreme conditions of Mongolia allow ecosystem,one of the three components of biodiversity, to be distinctive and varying. Ecosystem diversity therefore permit  organismal and genetic diversity, the other two components of biodiversity. Biodiversity is variability of all form of living organism at all possible level without limiting to only terrestrial lives. These biological sources are of immense importance to humanity’s economic and social development, However without keeping the biodiversity conservation, rapid demolition and extinction will be fast to creep up the whole web of life including human race as the world population consumes 1.5 times more biological resources than the Earth can bear. Conserving biological diversity is then vitally important in regard to sustainability. However unlike other high industrialized countries, Mongolia’s lifestyle of both rural and urban, keep the balance of conservation and the issues between environment and development. Mongolia’s pride of their biodiversity and culture, harmonious with their nature and the environment in national “ger”, lead the country’s idiosyncratic development of ecologically and economically sustainable.NATURE WORSHIPPING CULTURE      According to the National Statistical Commision (NSC) the population of Mongolia in 2017 last half is 3,121,772 , and the density is 2 people in square kilometers. Out of the whole population almost half of them live in the capital city , Ulaanbaatar  covering only 4,704 square kilometers. This leaves most of the rural areas pristine and its biodiversity little influenced by human activities. Nomadic pastoralists, who seasonally move to different locations, in order to find fresh pasture for the livestocks, and their   32,729,200 livestocks between the five major types; cow, horse,camel, sheep and goat, are then left unhampered in the rural. Having moto in the Mongolian Constitution, which states that “The livestock of the country is national wealth and subject to state protection.” , Mongolia is willing to continue preserving the nature. along nomad lifestyle. The major reason for that is nomads from their tradition knows how to conserve and live in ‘harmony’ with the nature. Their appreciation and worship toward the nature since early history including Chinggis khan’s nature conservation law  “Ikh Tsaaz”(Great law) till modern protection policy of 38 areas which cover 11 percent of Mongolia, can guarantee the safe and prosperous future in Biodiversity Conservation. However Biodiversity Conservation needs more than the traditional classic way which is important but lacking against destructive industrial pollution, over exploitation and climate change. Conservation must be put into priority development, as Mongolia has a severe continental climate and an ecologically vulnerable environmentECOSYSTEM DIVERSITYBetween Siberia and Gobi desert in the transitional zone of 41.4-52.1, Mongolia is a land of diverse characteristics and home to diverse living organisms including mazaalai bear and mongolian agama lizard. About 81 percent of Mongolian territory is situated higher than 1000 metres above sea level and the average elevation of the country is 1580 metres above sea level (the lowest and highest points being at 532 metres and 4374 metres, respectively). Despite the average temperature in January  -34 Celsius, extreme cold temperature of -50 to -56Celsius have been recorded and the average temperature in mid July of +23 Celsius, extreme warm temperature of +40 to +46 Celsius have been recorded. 400 millimeters averagely in high mountain regions and 150 to 250 milliliters averagely in steppe regions and less than 100 milliliters averagely in steppe-desert regions, about 75 percent of the precipitation is done in summer three months. And as precipitation decrease from north to south, the mineralization increases causing southern parts of the country have sparse vegetation and fewer species of animals. These extreme elevation, climate, precipitation and moreover characteristics of Mongolia, concludes the country’s disparate conditions for the life of innumerable ecosystems and makes Mongolia ecologically abundant. In addition, Alphine, Taiga or high mountain range in the northern part and steppe, desert covering one third of the nation’s area in the southern part is what makes Mongolia’s feature geographically abundant. As result Mongolia’s ecosystem diversity can be divided into 6 major ecological regions as conducted from its flora and fauna statistics with climatic and geographical dataDesert Predominant in south , Mongolian Gobi desert region is extremely dry with some areas continuously without rain for several years. It has high diurnal temperature fluctuation as of monthly average temperature ranges from -15 Celsius in winter time and +30 Celsius in summer time. Sandy hills, hillocks, rolling heaths and sand dunes are constantly in change because of the high winds and dust storms, especially in spring and summer. Famous for its ancient fossil of dinosaurs, the desert also provides habitat for threatened animal species The vegetation is dominated by endemic and rare plant species including Gobi.feathergrasses, Populus diversifolia, Incarvillea potaninii, Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, Halimodendron halodendron, black symplegma and glasswort . Saxaul (Haloxylon ammodendron).is an interesting tree among those as it growth does not exceed two meters, and other typical plants include Tarnaris Dioica, Salsola arbuscula, desert rhubarb (Rheum naanum) and yellow ephedra (Ephedra przewalskii).