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What is the anonymity?

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Anonymity means that the real author of a message or packet isn’t shown or very difficult to search out the author of a message. If we provide those two definiton,that means we provide the anonymity on the internet;

Unidentifiability ; third person cannot identify any individual person who using internet

Unlinkability ; third person cannot link an person to a specific message or action

Anonymity isn’t something which was invented with the Internet. Before the internet,people were using aliases for being anonymous,it calls pseudonym.

However, being anonymous on the internet is never %100,there is always a possibility to find out who is guessing who it is.

Why do we need that?

There are several reasons to do that. For example;

-People in a country with a repressive political regime may use anonymity to avoid persecution for their political opinions,even in democratic countries.

-People are more equal in anonymous discussions. There are no factors that can effect their discussion like status,gender etc..

-Anti-Cencorship

-Ofcourse privacy. Some people just want it for their privacy.

How can they follow us?

IP Addresses

The most basic way of identifying you is by user’s IP address. From user’s IP address,a website can determine user’s rough geographical location – user’s city or area -. However,IP addresses can change and are often used by multiple users,so they aren’t a good way of tracking a single user over time. Still,an IP address can be combined with other techniques here to track your geographical location.

HTTP Referrer

When user’s browser redirect the user,browser loads the web page you clicked and have the information about the website where you came from.This information is contained in the HTTP referrer header.

Cookies & Tracking Scripts

Cookies are small pieces of information websites can store in your browser. When user sign into a online-banking website,a cookie remembers user’s login information. When user change a setting on a website,a cookie sotres that setting so it can persist across page loads an sessions.

Cookies can also track user’s browsing activity. Some websites want to know what pages users visit.

Super Cookies

Users can clear browser’s cookies.However,it isn’t a 100% solution. Super cookie’s datas can store in multiple places for instance,in Flash cookies, Silverlight storage,browsing history and HTML5 local storage.

When a website notices that you have deleted part of the super cookie,the information copy from the other location. For instance,you might clear your browser cookies and not your Flash cookies,so the website will copy the value of the Flash cookie to your browser cookies.

User Agent

Browser also sends a user agent every time you connect to a website. This tells websites your browser and operating system.

Browser Fingerprinting

Websites can determine user’s operating system,browser version,installed plug-ins and their versions,operating system’s screen resolution,installed fonts,time zone etc.

There is a website called Panopticlick can check user’s browser’s and system’s trackability ;
https://panopticlick.eff.org/

They are the basic way of logging systems. Every big systems have logging server. They can log every action,sendig request to http,ftp,smtp,ssh etc.

How can we protect?

There are several ways to protect from tracking/being anonym on the internet. However,there isn’t certain way to do it.

Users can set the cookies setting on the browser that they use like ; “Only keep cookies until I close my browser” or close all of it. Close all of it might not be good solution because some websites don’t allow the users which don’t accept the cookies.
Disable Flash and all other kind of “Super Cookies”
Use the extensions on the browsers to control 3rd party sites can include content in user’s page or run code in user’s browser
Use Tor to hide user’s IP addressand other browser characteristics when user want maximum browser privacy

VPN(Virtual Private Network)

Virtual Private Network is a service that allows you to connect to the internet via a server run by a VPN provider. All data traveling between user’s device and this “VPN Server” is securely encrypted.

Normally,When you connect to the internet you first connet to your ISP(Internet Service Provider),then you connect to other sites. The ISP can view all the information that between you and the website. When using VPN, the ISP can view only the access that you connect to the VPN,because you connect to other sites after the VPN and the connection between you and VPN server is encrypted and also it is safe to use public Wifi hotspot,thanks to encrypted connection. Even if a hacker somehow manages your data,the data safe because it is encrypted.
Ofcourse your VPN provider can know what do you do on the internet. However,you can create your own VPN server.How to do it?

Creating Own VPN Server

The VPN provide secure access to your home network from everywhere or you can use it for

using Poland version of Netflix when traveling outside the Poland.

There are many solutions to do that.First one is getting a router which can act like VPN. Home routers often come with built-in VPN servers,you should just check it if it has. You can then activate and configure the VPN server by using setting of router.

Second option is making your own VPN server. You need just a computer or device that is on all the time,not a device that turn off when you aren’t at home.

Third option is installing third-party VPN server’s application like OpenVPN or OperaVPN. VPN servers are avaible for every operating systems. You need the just configure your ports or most of the applications do that by themselves.

Another option is hosting your own VPN server with a web hosting provider. After rent a server hosting you can install a VPN server on the server which they have give to you. Internet bandwidth and machine’s power can be change according to which packet that you choose.

It doesn’t matter whatever solution is chosen,there is only one fact that,users should set the authentication and updates carefully.Otherwise, hackers or another users can track the vpn servers easily.

TOR(The Onion Router)

Tor is an anonymity tool used by the those who want to stay private when surfing on the internet. It provides security,stability and speed. It has many different sponsors.Tor can help the users for being anonymous and also host their websites by using “hidden services” capabilities which mean sites can only be accessed by user on the Tor network. It is call “Dark Web”.

How does TOR work?
Tor works by bouncing connections from user’s pc to destinations (for instance agh.edu.pl) by using several of intermediate computers or relays. Nowadays, there are about 6000 relays managing the traffic at the Tor arrange. A large portion of the relays don’t have special hardware or computer code to do it. They simply have the Tor software configured to act as a relay. On the off chance that there are more transfers to pick from,it will be harder to trace anyone.

Sorts of Relays

Guard Relay : This the entrance for the Tor network.

Middle Relay : Middle points transport activity from the guard relay to the exit point.
Exit Relay : Exit point at the Tor network. They send traffic to the final point.

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-- Connection timeout A real scenario-multi purpose node --->>

For efficiency,the Tor network uses the same path for connections at intervals a similar 10 minutes.Later requests are given a replacement circuit to keep away people from linking your earlier actions to the new ones.

The Tor network can’t solve all anonymity problems. It focuses only protective the information transfer. Users have to use different softwares if they don’t want the sites user visit to see user’s information like identfy.If the attackers watch the traffic coming out of your computer,and also going out, they can use statistical analysis to find out that which web sites that you visit or who arrive email from you.

I2P

I2P is a open source project and it is a anonymous P2P(Peer to Peer) network. It provides to user security layers which can connect each other. The users can use email services,surfing,connecting the blogs and forums,publish websites and instant message in the this layers. All the informations encrypt with layers and transfer by tunnels. Tunnel is the most important topic in the I2P.

There are two types of tunnels in the I2P. First one is “outbond” and other one is “inbound”.

How does TOR work?

The network made up of a set of nodes with a number of undirectional inbound and outbound tunnels. Each router has a cryptographic identify. These routers communicate with each other through existing protocols(TCP,UDP etc..). Client applications have different cryptographic identifier that enable to send and receive packets. I2P has its own internal network database for distribute route and deliver packets securely.

https://geti2p.net/fi/docs/how/intro
https://www.bestvpn.com/i2p-idiots-introduction/
http://www.cezerisga.com/makale/?nternette%20Görünmez%20Olmak%20?çin%2010%20Gizlilik%20Uygulamas?

Versus Time
Tor provides one with better anonymous access to the open internet and I2P provides one with a more powerful and trustable “network with internet”. In every case, ISP can see the user,can use Tor/I2P or something else but not anymore. In order to hide this knowledge too,users should use VPN service to hide their entry point the internet.

https://www.ivpn.net/privacy-guides/an-introduction-to-tor-vs-i2p
https://geti2p.net/tr/docs/how/intro

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