Personal (2005) stated that personal branding is varied

Personal
branding is comparatively a novel phenomenon connected to marketing effort, which
encourages and promotes oneself in the competitive job market place. Personal
branding is popularized by generally attributing to the increasing number of
books on the subject, magazines, websites and specialized literature about how
correctly to brand oneself successfully in the business market.

Everyone
has his or her own personal brand regardless of business, position and age
(Peters, 1997). In other words, personal branding is an individualistic method.
Every individual has an opportunity to remark a brand worthily. If personal
branding is applied accurately can transform any individual into a distinguished
brand in any field (Rein, Kotler, Hamlin, and Stoller, 2006).

Shepherd
(2005) stated that personal branding is varied activities undertaken by people
to make themselves distinguished, different and unique in the marketplace. Meanwhile,
Lair, Sullivan and Cheney (2005) defined this term by depicting is as a concept
that involving the terms “concepts of product development and promotion” and
“used to market persons for entry into transition within labor market”. Kotler
and Levy (1969) claimed that individuals could be marketed like products,
stating that personal branding is a native human activity, from the employee
making effort to make good impression on his employer to the celebrity trying
to win the support from the public.

I)            
THEORIES
RELATED TO PERSONAL BRANDING

Shepherd
(2005) stated that personal branding is not yet satisfactorily embedded in a
right theoretical framework in spite of being associated with and developed
from principles and concepts in mainstream marketing. Therefore, Shepherd
(2005) suggested that an appropriate multi-disciplinary approach should be
taken to understand the behavior in personal branding.

Figure
1:
Personal branding process

This
literature review provides a brief introduction to the theories of Pierre
Bourdieu’s sociology (1984, 1986), and the dramaturgical theory of Erving
Goffman (1959).

1.    Bourdieu’s
sociology ( 1984, 1986)

Bourdieu’s
theory utilizes the concepts of social capital and cultural capital to provide
a meaningful conceptual underpinning for deep understanding of the definition
of personal brand by building it in established fields. Bourdieu (1984, 1986)
and Coleman (1988) stated that social capital and cultural capital are a
by-product of human activities and by far are the resources that can be
converted into varied types of capital in certain circumstances.

1.1.       Social
capital

Social
capital is defined as the sum of the resources that accrue to a person or a
group by possessing a durable network of relationships and mutual acquaintance.

1.2.       Cultural
capital

Cultural
capital is defined as a form of knowledge, skills and advantages that an
individual has that can provide them a higher status in the society, which
includes formal and informal form of knowledge.

In
short, according to Bourdieu, personal brand development within the
organizational fields happening through processes which can assist to depict an
individual as having specific social and cutural capital.

2.    Goffman’s
theory (1959)

In
the Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, Goffman (1959) explained
self-presentation during social interaction by using a dramaturgy metaphor and
Goffman called this impression management. Personal branding is illustrated as
a form of self-presentation, which is a compound of artifactual, verbal
strategies and non-verbal behaviors.

II)          
STRATEGIES
TO BUILD AND REINFORCE PERSONAL BRAND

1.    Define
personal destination and acquire the essential skills

Beginning
to brand oneself is not easy. Therefore, start by determining where people
desire and really want to invest their energy. Seeking out a mentor to obtain
guidance is a wise choice if people are looking to advance or shift laterally
within their company. The next step is to build up some essential skills for
the new path. Obviously, obtaining the skills needed will provide people the
confidence to start publicizing their novel identity.

2.     Leverage Unique selling points

Personal
brand is the unique promise of the value for which people are known. Whenever
an opportunity arises, those familiar with one’s brand will relate the
opportunity with his or her value. People should ask themselves who they are
and what makes them unique. It is said that differentiation is at the heart of
a good and great brand. Whether personal or corporate, the best brands often
consist of three words or less. In short, simple and memorable way, unique
selling points is a concept to describe a product or a person. One way to
identify easily personal unique selling points is to do personal brand session
by listing facts about oneself. Then take this list and whittle down to three
to five facts that are unique to oneself. Sometimes, you are able to plant the
flag of who you are when you can build a name and a reputation for yourself.

3.    Choosing
distribution channels

The
pervasiveness of social media renders personal brand powerful as a career
management tool. It is undoubtedly that it is impossible to communicate
personal brand to all people. Therefore, there are abundance of approaches to
connect to people such as advertising, websites and social media. Using
targeted channels such as Facebook, Snapchat or Instagram in the best way to give
your time and budget. Another point is that, using traditional tools such as
personal brand statement, resume, and brand profile can maintain personal
authenticity.

4.    Prove
your worth

By
establishing and promoting your track record, you can prove your personal
value. The first step is to secure your own Internet domain name and begin to
produce property. The second step is even more critical that you have to ensure
your material offer real value. Make a focused effort to publish in famous
journals, and take on a leadership role in some trade association to help you
demonstrate your ability. Finally, be consistent and committed as moving
forward.

According
to phD Reed L. Morton, an effective brand is able to communicates your distinct
value.