Question Australia is approximately 1 oC since 1910.

Question 1

 

Conferring to CSIRO and
The Bureau of Meteorology, the worldwide mediocre value of sea temperatures and
heat content remains increasing to a degree upon a minimum of two thousand meters
below the surface as showed in Figure 1. The sea level has upsurge further than
twenty centimeters since late 1900s due to ocean warming therefore causing the
land ice to melt hence affecting the volume of water deposited on land. The average
heat content and ocean temperatures was warmed through the climate in Australia
is approximately 1 oC since 1910. The recurrence, intensity and
length of overwhelming heat occasions has been expanded in extreme fire climate
and season throughout cosmic regions of Australia in crosswise since the 1970s (Bom.gov.au, 2017).

           

Based on State of the
Climate report in 2014, the number of records concerning overwhelming warmth in
Australia has dwarfed outrageous cool records by 3 to 1 for daytime with extreme
temperatures hence about 5 to 1 during evening with least temperatures since
2001. During 1951 to 1980, warm months frequently occurs slightly above than 2
percent. However, it befalls nearly 7 percent from 1981 to 2010 hence 10
percent in recent years. During that time interval, the recurrence of exceedingly
cool months has dropped by over a third since the prior epoch. Figure 2 shows
the variations in the recurrence of temperature extremes that appears to be directly
identified with warming patterns (Climatechangeinaustralia.gov.au, 2016). During
the Australian summer in 2012-2013, extreme warmth was encountered.

 

Fitting to the data
recorded in Bathurst throughout summer from mean 1960-1990 and mean 2000, there
is an upturn about 0.5 oC in minimum and 2 oC in maximum temperature
value. After 2000, approximately 14 out of 17 peaks (82.4%) are more than the 1960-1990
maximum mean value hence roughly 11 out of 17 peaks (64.7 %) are more than the
minimum mean value. Year 2017 was considered the warmest summer year with a
range of 16.0 oC to 32.6 oC since 1960s whilst the
coldest summer was in 1965 where the temperature range was within 10.2 oC
to 27.4 oC. Furthermore, during summer at Sydney Airport, there is
an increase about 1.3 oC in minimum temperature value and 0.9 oC
in maximum from mean 1960-1990 to mean 2000 period. After 2000, all 17 out of 17
peaks (100%) values are higher than the 1960-1990 for both maximum and minimum mean
value. The coldest summer was in 1965 where the temperature range was within
16.3 oC to 23.9 oC while 2017 was still considered the
warmest summer year with the range of 21.2 oC to 30.1 oC
since 1960s.

The
data for winter was also collected for Bathurst and Sydney Airport.  In Bathurst, there is an increase about 0.5 oC
in minimum temperature value and 1.5 oC in maximum temperature value
from mean 1960 -1990 and mean 2000 period. After 2000, there is 15 out of 17 peaks
(88.2%) which is more than the 1960-1990 mean value for maximum whereas for
minimum, there is 11 out of 17 peaks (64.7%) more than the mean value. The
warmest summer was in 2013, 0.8 oC to 13.8 oC. The
coldest summer was in 2017 where the temperature range was within -2.4 oC
to 13.8 oC. In Sydney Airport, there is an increase about 1.9 oC
in minimum and 0.6 oC in maximum temperature value from mean
1960-1990 and mean 2000 period. After 2000, there is 14 out of 17 peaks (82.4%)
which is more than the 1960-1990 mean value for maximum and for minimum, all 17
out of 17 peaks (100%) are more than the mean value. The warmest winter was in
2013, 9.4 oC to 19.6 oC. The coldest winter was in 1965
where the temperature range was within 4.3 oC to 17.9 oC.

 

From Figure 3 and 4, we
can conclude that the trend displays that the graph is increasing as there are
more peaks above the trendline than below for both the graphs. The trendline is
similarly increasing for figure 5 and 6 where Bathurst has higher variability
hence higher range in summer and winter compared to Sydney Airport.

 

In conclusion, Australian
temperatures are expected to remain increasing with more extremely hot days and
lesser cool days. In southern and eastern Australia, the number of days with
climate encouraging for flame is predicted to rise. Formerly and current ozone
depleting substance discharges mean resulting in further warming of sea
temperatures where sea-level ascent and fermentation across Australia are expected
to ensue.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diagram and charts:

 

 

Figure 1

 

Figure 2

 

Figure 3

 

Figure 4

 

Figure 5

 

 

Figure 6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 2

 

    There are
numerous climate elements that can be considered besides temperature. For
instance, elevation or altitude affects climate. As altitude rises, air
pressure and air temperature decrease. The air becomes less compact and air
particles are more spread out at higher altitudes. Therefore, the particles are
least likely to collide with one another. The coastal zone will have a sea
atmosphere however the inland zone on the leeward side will have a mainland
atmosphere (Foundation, 2012). Bathurst has a higher elevation than Sydney
Airport. Bathurst is further away from the coastal unlike Sydney Airport. Thus,
Bathurst is colder than Sydney Airport.

 

   
Besides that, topography of a particular area can impact our climate.
Mountains and hills are known as barriers that amend wind and precipitation
patterns. Air that rises are cool and the water vapor in it is involuntary to
condense, depositing rain or snow on the windward slopes. This causes orogenic
effect on their protected side and very less moisture appears in the air. The
coastal range tolerates for some condensation and light precipitation compared
to inland range (Media, 2017). Therefore, topography is another reason for why
Bathurst is colder than Sydney Airport.

 

   
Moreover, surface area also influences in environmental changes. The
measure of daylight that is ingested or reflected by the surface decides how
much air warming happens. Darker regions, for example, vigorously vegetated
districts, have a tendency to be great safeguards; lighter regions, for
example, snow and ice-secured locales, have a tendency to be excellent
reflectors (Media, 2017). Sydney Airport is linked by more urban landscape
compared to Bathurst. Therefore, Sydney Airport contributes more heat to the
environment than Bathurst.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

1.    
Bom.gov.au. (2017). State of the Climate
2016: Bureau of Meteorology. online Available at:
http://www.bom.gov.au/state-of-the-climate/index.shtml Accessed 19 Dec. 2017.

 

2.    
Climatechangeinaustralia.gov.au. (2016). Australian
trends. online Available at:
https://www.climatechangeinaustralia.gov.au/en/climate-campus/australian-climate-change/australian-trends/
Accessed 19 Dec. 2017.

 

3.    
Climatechangeinaustralia.gov.au. (2016). Extreme
temperature. online Available at:
https://www.climatechangeinaustralia.gov.au/en/climate-campus/climate-extremes/extreme-temperature/
Accessed 19 Dec. 2017.

 

4.    
Foundation, C. (2012). | CK-12 Foundation. online
CK-12 Foundation. Available at:
https://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Earth-Science-Concepts-For-High-School/section/9.35/
Accessed 20 Dec. 2017.

 

5.    
Media, A. (2017). Factors that Influence
Climate – Climate and Weather. online Climateandweather.net. Available at:
https://www.climateandweather.net/global-warming/factors-that-influence-climate.html
Accessed 20 Dec. 2017.