TABLE act, think and express freely without any

TABLE OF CONTENTSMedia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3 freedom…………………………………………………………………………………………………….3Media freedom……………………………………………………………………………………………………………3Freedom of expression…………………………………………………………………………………………………3International laws…………….………………..……………………………………………..…4Pakistani’s FoE law………..……………………………………………………………………5Advantages and Disadvantages of freedom of expression…………..……………………..……5Advantages………………………………………………………………………………….……5Disadvantages…………………………………………………………………………………….6Self regulation…………….………………………………………………………………………6Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………….…8References…………………………………………………………………………………….………….9Media:The word media is basically the plural form of medium that medium which is used for communication. This communication can be on a large scale or between two individuals. This medium of communication is not confined to any specific category. It can be in printed from, digital, or broadcast medium. Currently newspaper, social media, cinema and television are the main mediums used for communicating with audience.  Freedom:The power to act, think and express freely without any constraints is called freedom. It is the basic right of every human to have freedom. The meanings of Freedom differ from person to person. For some people it would be the political freedom; to cast their vote freely without any influence and for some it will be his desire to speak freely without being forced or influenced to speak someone other’s words. For a journalist freedom is expressing his opinion without any hurdles, to articulate everything that he wants within legal parameters. Media freedom:The power of media to speak, think, and express itself freely without any hurdle or obstacle can be called media freedom. Media possesses great potential and has this quality to shape opinions of public and break the stereotypes. Media is that lense with which people see the world. A person sitting in Africa can see what is happening here in Pakistan. If media is not free and is being influenced than this African will get framed information. So freedom is what makes it credible and this is the only reason why the world is fighting for freedom of expression.Freedom of expression:In a democratic system media is considered as the fourth pillar of any state. Our perspective regarding media is that it the true representative of the society and what it shows, speaks, articulates is free from any influence. If they really are doing this then the freedom of expression is being exercised in that state which is the basic right of every person living in that state. But this is what it might look like, the situation can be exact contrary this. Freedom of expression is a fundamental right for every individual. Looking into it from another perspective, if freedom of expression exist in a state it’s a progressive sign for that state because every individual is exercising this freedom and at the same time it is beneficial for general public too because a free journalist, media person can serve the nation in a  true sense. Journalist who is not tied by different influential character will talk for general public without any fear or favor. The freedom of expression is not confined to only one set of medium or category but it’s a vast range where many forms of freedom is required, a journalist have the freedom to disagree with someone’s opinions, he has the freedom to deliver and give the information to general public, he also has the freedom to receive any information and a democratic state has given him the freedom to disagree with those who are in power.  This circle of freedom even covers the freedom of free thinking. Someone should not confine himself to that circle where he stops thinking because he thinks that he is not worthy or able to think beyond that limit. Beside all this things there are some people who have their own interests and they don’t media to question their credibility or illegal incomes etc so in order to avoid this they create their own media outlets and make huge investment to make sure their immunity from being held accountable. Journalist or media person he hires for his aoutlet are given incentives to make them biased. Then these journalists are deprived from every form of freedom. But here they are deprived by their own by accepting these perks and privileges not from some external elements. Sometimes the state itself make obstruction in the path of media freedom. They confine media by making certain policies which are beneficial for them. They use illegal and brutal means to pressurize the media persons. The medium which is used to express freedom of opinion also has a vital role. Such medium should be used for communication that your message get access to larger audience. Otherwise you message can be only delivered to those who just close to you or in front of you. International laws: There is an international law for freedom of speech. The article 19 pf the universal declaration of human right say that;”Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.”? The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights says that;? Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference.? Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.? The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article carries with it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:? (a)For respect of the rights or reputations of others;? (b) For the protection of national security or of public order (order public), or of public health or morals.? The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights says that;? Article 9? Every individual shall have the right to receive information.? Every individual shall have the right to express and disseminate his opinions within the law.Pakistan’s FoE law: The constitution of Pakistan has provided everyone to express their freedom. The Article: 19 Freedom of speech says that;  “Freedom of speech, etc.-Every citizen shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression, and there shall be freedom of the press, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interest of the glory of Islam or the integrity, security or defense of Pakistan or any part thereof, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, 1commission of or incitement to an offence.”Advantages and Disadvantages of freedom of expressionEverything that exist in this universe has two sides, good and bad. Like every other thing freedom of expression has also good and bad aspects. Which are discussed in detail and with relevant examples below:Advantages:Freedom of expression is very beneficial for a society when exercised in a right way. Freedom of expression helps a democratic system to flourish because this freedom point out the wrong doings of anyone in the democratic state without any fear or favor. The reason behind declaring media as fourth pillar of a democratic state is because of its effective role in the welfare of state. Freedom of expression motivates the general public to take part in the democratic processes. Any person residing in a democratic state will not participate in betterment of democratic system because if he is kept in dark and not allowed to access to information; which is the basic right of every human, then he will not take part in the betterment of it. The other thing that will not allow them is that they are not allowed to speak or act freely without any hurdles. Citizens cannot exercise their right to vote effectively or take part in public decision-making if they do not have free access to information and ideas and are not able to express their views freely. Freedom of expression is thus not only important for individual dignity but also to participation, accountability and democracy. Violations of freedom of expression often go hand in hand with other violations, in particular the right to freedom of association and assembly.Progress has been made in recent years in terms of securing respect for the right to freedom of expression. Efforts have been made to implement this right through specially constructed regional mechanisms. New opportunities are emerging for greater freedom of expression with the internet and worldwide satellite broadcasting. New threats are emerging too, for example with global media monopolies and pressures on independent media outlets.Disadvantages:Every individual has their own personal space, within which they have freedom of doing anything. But this freedom remains only till the time it doesn’t interfere with the personal space of some any other individual other than you. Now days this term has gained a lot of popularity, individuals and groups either separately or collectively have started abusing each other’s or a set of people’s rights in the name of so called “Freedom of Speech”. We know what and where our boundaries are but give the least consideration about it when it comes to others, we have forgotten that where our limits end someone else’s boundaries might begin from just there. In 1991 a case was filed against Salman Rushdie alleging blasphemy through his novel, “The Satanic Verses”. This time the alleged blasphemous insult was on Islam, rather than being related to the Church or the Old or New Testament. The court said that the law of blasphemy only was applicable to the Christian religion and not to other religions. If this was done then such law would be misused by people of different faith against one another and hence provoke a breach of peace and public order. Another conclusion that the court reached was that to include faiths other than Christianity, for the offence of blasphemy was something that required a change in law and could only be done by the parliament.Hence, the courts were held “not competent” to administer such a change.Therefore, it is the role of the courts to examine whether the material published on social media, is within limits or not, and whether it can provoke a breach of peace or cause extreme aversion to any ‘reasonable person.’Self-regulation:What self regulation literally means is by oneself or itself control .especially such control as as exercised independently of governmental supervision, laws, or the like. Or Self-regulation is the controlling of a process or activity by the people or organizations that are involved in it rather than by an outside organization such as the government.Self-regulation should be distinguished from state or statutory regulation (i.e., regulation by law or by a statutory regulatory authority). Means of self-regulation include dispute resolution procedures, rating boards, codes of conduct, and at the level of the user, technical measures such as filtering, encryption, and pin numbers that regulate children’s and others’ behavior. Self-regulation is often seen as more attractive than state regulation because it has legitimacy with the industry, is more flexible in responding to change, and can offer an alternative to state and political interference with media content. On the other hand, self-regulation is often criticized for the same reasons: because it is overly flexible and too close to the industry to offer genuine protection of the public interest. The sanctions of self-regulation are generally seen as weaker than those available to statutory bodies or through legal process. Usually, exclusion from the trade association or self-regulatory scheme is the ultimate sanction. In the case of press and broadcasting, there may be an obligation to publish a retraction or apology. Forms of self-regulation are in some cases linked to statutory schemes. One argument against government regulation of the media places the public interest at its forefront; the emphasis is on the principle that an independent media will foster free speech which will be jeopardized by concentrating too much power over it in the hands of the government. Kitto, specifically in reference to the Australian Press Council, has argued that media self-regulation is vital: The stability of a country is assessed by the way the media report the news of that country. Thus, it becomes the obligation of the media to circulate only applicable and valid facts locally and globally. In some societies, there exists an antagonistic relationship between press and administration that might persuade media to spread negative influences in the society. Often it happens that media reports give rise to revolutions, rebellions and violence, for example, the problems of the uprising in Libya leading to Civil War in 2011. Many jurists severely condemned this as negative media reporting. Hence, media activities are to be observed meticulously so that the information circulated would not give any negative effect. However, the fact is that, to monitor and watch the watchdog, there is no proper authority. The role of media has been changing from what it was perceived. The neutrality of news in reporting is missing in the mainstream media today because of the hidden agendas that many press and media outlets hold. The idea of media self-regulation translates a desire to see media structures themselves develop ethics which would protect individuals or group interests from unacceptable abuse in the media. Through it, the media essentially demonstrates that state interventions are not necessary. Self-regulation should really be seen as a solemn promise by the media to be accountable to the public and to correct mistakes.ConclusionMedia freedom and self regulation:Due to continued support and dedication to the freedom of expression, Freedom has been able to provide a wide variety of views and accounts of news over the past 30 years. In a world where the public is majorly informed by means of fragmentary day-to-day news processed through a few news media who, because of their size, dominate the flow of information, accounts by other media such as Freedom – who can provide different views-are increasingly important to a free society. Media is a very powerful tool, if used appropriately it can do miracles, but if misused it can cause harm like no other thing can. Tools as we know are not harmful or useful, it is their use that categorizes them in a certain way, and so same is the case with media be it of any form, print media or electronic media. The purpose that it fulfills is what makes it either good or bad; freedom of speech is one such issue that came into limelight by media’s propagation regarding this issue. Media’s approach is very wide and is followed by a large number of populations anywhere, so whatever is portrayed regarding any issue gains hype instantly and leaves a deep impact on the minds of masses. With such powers come great responsibilities as well, and to make sure these responsibilities are met some laws had to be laid down to keep a proper check.