Tentative of increasing socio-cultural and political differentiation among

Tentative title:
Tribal Youth’s Participation in Governance and/ for Development: With Special
Reference to Kurkheda Block of Gadchiroli District.

Introduction

In
the development discourses in India, tribes continue be view as monolithic category
despite significant differences among different tribal groups. There is
evidence of increasing socio-cultural and political differentiation among
different tribal group and there are regional variations in the development
indicators of Scheduled Tribe across the country. The tribal development
policies and programs are centers on the homogeneity of tribal people and assume
that they will develop and integrate into the mainstream. The various critics
and of the current development model rooted in the modernization paradigm have
shown the contradiction inherent in the model including the state initiated
development for marginalized people such as tribal communities. (Burmon 2004,
Pathy1998). They argue that state welfare policies for tribal communities and
the oppressive and coercive measure against them operate in a manner that leads
to not only the economic and political marginalization of tribal communities
but also heir cultural and social exclusion. This kind of discussion has been
revisited recently in the context of Scheduled Tribe. In today’s context the
concept of development has a major thrust on economic growth but social
development and the interlink ages between social and economic development is stress
in different discourses. Today development is applied to all fields of human endeavor
it seen as expansion of choice, human capability, expansion of freedom participation
and quality of life. It is closely linked with notion of state and governance. Traditional
and non-traditional means formal institutions are part of political system of
tribal world. While their everyday activities play important role in the
process of their political participation in traditional and new emerging institution
within community where how they make their decision and perceive these for
their development or community development. That is the reason to capture the
tribal youth voices within perspective for their development with their attitude.

Rational of the Study

From the post – independence period, the tribal
development issue is oscillating within two actors, state and non-state actors.
In non-state actors, NGOs and Naxalite Movement play a really important part in
determining the concept of development for tribes. Whereas government (State)
also sets its own definition through various policies and plans for them. Both
hold their own vital manifest or latent interests and therefore, in these past
70 years, tribal communities are not included in mainstream society. Instead,
they are marginalized day-by-day and
victimized by various state or non-state and state supported agencies through
rigorous exploitation, displacement, oppression, and further exclusion. These
various agencies not only claim about their own status of ‘masihas’
of tribes, but also claim that they
produce an ideal model of development for these tribes. Though, all these
models are failing to pull up the tribes from their deprived status. There is a
need to see the perspectives from within which are limited in various studies
regarding tribal development. Mostly the work has been done with an outsider’s
perspective and with a colonial lens till today. There is vital role of the
political structure of governance in the development and empowerment of the
tribes in India. Whenever the state and non-state actors fail to bring change
and include them in the mainstream the major problem is the failure to
understand the voices of tribal youth in the governing process. There is
imposition of state political institution which creates the confusion and chaos
in governance structure in tribal area. State formal institutions also fail to
look and articulate the tribal political system and are a matter of concern in
understanding the democratic political discourses. These discourses how the tribal
youth get understand and analyze in the perspective of development. Development includes paradigms of self-reliance,
empowerment, and people’s participation in decision making, fulfillment of
basic needs and so on. In India local communities has got power under the 73rd&
74th constitutional amendment. In tribal areas PESA has enacted and
it has given power to the local self-government. The three-tier Panchayati Raj
system constitutes the foundation on which stands the entire edifice of rural
development in India. In
Gond tribal community also now
exploring the political institution, non-constitutional institutions and
governing various activities and programs for there so called development. But
again the failure nature of the policies and program need to collect the voices
and perspective from tribal in the governance system towards outcome better for
their world. The rational of this study is how this structure does reflect and
crystallised democratic determination for their development and empowerment of
the people. The intention is to capture their experiences and ideas,
perceptions about the development through the governance system or understand
their concept of development and the thought about the political representation
leads towards their inclusion or development from various perspective.

Social
work in India is an important stage of transition where bottom-up approach or
model from indigenous communities are increasingly being assimilate in
education as opposed to the earlier largely western models. In today’s context
the governance as mentioned is a right constantly within the sphere of conflict
between the state and community itself. In order to develop and a people center
right based governance model it is important for social work as a profession to
examine identify these areas of conflict and challenge. Within the lager sphere
of social work this study will take the perspective of tribal social work.

Statement
of the Problem

There are many plan and policies for marginalised
group to bring them in mainstream. Development is a bout change and
transformation which can bring by the youth in today’s context because they are
main agents of socio-economic change in grassroots level. Now government and
private institutions are engaged in the development of the scheduled tribe and
accept their assimilation into mainstream but still the issues of marginalized
and deprived community has not been understood by the mainstream population
where the representation of these peoples low and not come with welcome. State
makes plan and politics for their development but there is need to understand
the perspective within towards development where tribal community and specially
youth can make their rational voices about the politics around their
circumstances. Political participation and governance is important factor to
achieve their development by this way. The power has been given to Gramsabha
and authority and power should perform by very well in today’s context. But in
the todays context in tribal zone there are various issues about their
inclusion in mainstream.  In the process
of PESA act and other development program implementation process about in
reality the traditional and formal institutions. At the grassroots level there
are conflict going around the implementation of PESA and FRA act in scheduled
area. All the power has been given to Gramsabha and that’s why whole notion of development
of tribe take place around the activities occur in the community. The Kurkheda
block of Gadchiroli district is under Scheduled V area and in today’s context
there are many issues are rising by tribal community. One side state makes provision
to give power to Gramsabha and other side its again violet their rights. In that
process the tribal youth include educated ad non-educated should be understand
and analyse the current scenario. Therefore there is need to see such issue how
tribal youth perceive this. Because it affects their future and community
issues where whole world is thinking about their socio-economic, political and
cultural development and due to such interfere of state into local community
and mostly youth’s life get spoils by this activities. This kind of issues get
affected to large number of tribal community an youth who are agents of the
social transformation so their perception and attitudes towards their
development and conflict resolution can make better for their future life. That
is reason to understand and analyse the youth point of view through this study.