The are often lead by personal face-to-face relationships,

The definition of radicalisation, according to Cambridge is; to make someone become more radical (= extreme) in their political or religious beliefs. According to the NSPCC, (1) Protecting children from radicalisation, some of the signs of this process are; isolating themselves from family and friends; talking as if from a scripted speech; unwillingness or inability to discuss their views; a sudden disrespectful attitude towards others; increased levels of anger and increased secretiveness, especially around internet use. The Australian Government explains the radicalisation process as three key areas. The first area is the ideology, then the social relations or criminal activity. It was also said that most people do not go all the way to becoming a violent extremist, some processes are interrupted. This is called disengagement, people who can deactivate this are families, friends and different communities.                   According to The Australian Government’s Living Safe Together scheme, (2) they think that many people join extremist groups for different social reasons. For example, close and personal relationships-this is especially common for young people. The first sign of radicalisation is people begin to pull away from normal and mainstream activities and friendship groups. They are involved in a conflict with friends and family over political or ideological views. Also, they may start to become involved with smaller networks of people who share their beliefs. Some groups will require an oath of allegiance which will prove their commitment towards the extreme group. Most people who are involved with these groups are often lead by personal face-to-face relationships, however, there are some exceptions, for example, some recruitment is done online. A person may be apart of an online community who share their extremist views and radicalise in a virtual environment. During the process of radicalisation, a person may take part in criminal activity. They may begin to draw attention to their extreme beliefs or send messages to specific groups. This may not cause harm but the intentions could still be illegal. This may include the production of vandalism, property damage, trespassing or illegal protesting. The deeper the person is into the radicalisation process will mean the more serious the criminal activity is. For example, the individuals may try to influence the government and if someone supports this violence and promote the cause, the more concern it causes.                     The Internet is a huge part of the radicalisation process, it is a way into researching and finding terrorist organisations, For example, Eben Kaplan (3) states that ‘Terrorists increasingly are using the internet as a means of communication both with each other and the rest of the world’. Terrorist organisations promote their extreme beliefs and views online and on social media.  Kaplan also claims that ‘Haifa University’s Gabriel Weimann, whose research on the subject is widely cited, the number of terrorist sites increased exponentially over the last decade–from less than 100 to more than 4,800 two years ago.’  According to Kaplan’s research, Terrorist websites can be used as virtual training grounds, offering tutorials on building bombs, firing surface-to-air missiles and sneaking into Iraq from abroad.Another reason why terrorism may occur is Ostracism (6). Williams and Nida, 2011 give the definition of ‘Ostracism as being ignored and excluded, and other forms of interpersonal rejection threaten individuals’ physical and psychological well-being’ Researchers use the terms ostracism, social exclusion and rejection as interchangeable. But they are theoretical and empirical debates about the different effects of the phenomena. Ostracism threatens basically psychological needs such as belonging, control, meaningful existence and self-esteem.  The flow-chart in the appendix shows how Ostracism can lead to home-grown terrorism. According to Oxford Dictionaries Homegrown terrorism is the committing of terrorist acts in the perpetrator’s own country against their fellow citizens.There is no set reason as of why radicalisation is caused, however according to ‘Center for Global Policy’ (4) there are some factors behind radicalisation. They state that there isn’t one specific factor that causes radicalisation, there are different factors that motivate people to join terrorist groups. It is estimated that nearly 30,000 individuals from 85 countries to join organisations such as ISIS. Its often suggested that religion is the leading factor for radicalisation the reality of this is very different. Even though extremists interpretation are used to appeal individuals susceptible to this type of brainwashing. Religion usually provides a sense of identity and belonging to vulnerable individuals, for others it lifts them from underachievement, marginalisation and criminality or simply the mundane. Extremists use this to their advantage by saying they’re heroes, champions working for a noble cause. Experts agree with the idea that religion does not motivate all radicals. Another factor could be the lack of identity and sense of belonging, for others it could be economic concerns, grievance and revenge. Extremists seek out others who are feeling alienated, marginalised and disenfranchised. For example, if an individual has faced islamophobia that is also likely to cause discrimination and a sense of alienation.  However, the Association for Psychological Science ( APS) has a different perspective of radicals motives. (5) They claim that there are diverse goals of terrorism, such as honour, humiliation, heavenly rewards, devotion to a leader, vengeance, group pressure, and feminism. APS claims that all of those reasons are important but the root problem is personal significance. ‘Significance is the motivational force, beyond utilitarian or self-preservation’  APS say that a characteristic of significance is ‘sacred values’, these are what is worthwhile, moral and admirable. If a person has all these then they will lead a good life. The research also states that ‘the quest for significance must be of a sufficient magnitude to subdue and sacrifice utilitarian concerns, especially when it comes to high-risk, life-threatening behaviours.’  The quest for significance has also been backed up by the book ‘Fully Committed: Suicide Bombers’ Motivation and the Quest for Personal Significance’ In this, it is stated that Becker 1973; Greenberg, Koole, & Pyszczynski, 2004 also agree with this idea. According to ‘Fully Committed: Suicide Bombers’ Motivation and the Quest for Personal Significance’ Becker, Greenberg, Koole and pyszczynski implied that in ‘the human species the biological need for physical survival is intimately linked to the quest for personal meaning and significance. The reason is assumed to stem from humans’ awareness of their ownMortality and the implied threat of personal insignificance;’ This could be the case for multiple terrorists, however, there could be other motives which have not been included, such as, peer pressure.