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The correct summaries and citations Sound Production in The CockroachSummary:This research paper is about the analysis of how hissing cockroaches communicate using different types of hisses. The mating rituals of the hissing cockroaches were also explored. The courtship behavior of the cockroaches includes the approach, mutual attention, posturing by the male, the female crawling over the male, and then copulation.It was soon to be discovered that there were different frequencies, pitches, and volumes for certain types of hisses. The research also examined how modifying the male’s spiracles affected the way they interacted with other males and possible mates. There are four different types of noises made by the hissing cockroach. One type is the disturbance hiss. This hiss is made whenever the cockroach is disturbed from outside influences. The second type is aggressive hissing. This hiss is made only by the males and is produced when males fight. The third type of hissing is courtship hissing. This hissing is produced during the courting behavior of the cockroaches. The final type of hissing is copulatory hissing. This sound is made 40% of the time when the cockroaches mate.Nelson MC, Fraser J. Sound production in the cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa: evidencefor communication by hissing. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 1979 accessed 2018 Jan 30;6(4):305–314. A Behavioral Syndrome Linking Courtship Behavior toward Males and Females Predicts Reproductive Success from a Single Mating in the Hissing Cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosaSummary:This research article explains how the behavior of hissing cockroaches is influenced by their mating rituals. The data that was collected was over the behavior of male hissing cockroaches during male–male competition and how female’s choice was affected by the male’s behavior.The researchers also classified a new behavioral syndrome called “libido.” This type of behavior is used during courtship and unlike normal courtship behavior which can be aggressive, this type is a positive behavior. The researchers studied the following behavioral assays: righting, saline, foraging, intruder, and female. In the righting assays, the researchers observed how the male cockroaches reacted when flipped on their backs and how fast it took them to right themselves. In the saline assay, the salt water was used on the dorsum to cause a hissing response. The hissing was recorded over a 60 second period. In the foraging assay, the researchers observed how long it would take for the 48-hour starved cockroaches to venture out to find food. In the intruder assay, the behavior of a male intruder into another male’s territory was observed. Lastly, in the female assay, the behavior of male cockroaches was observed to see how they responded to the presence of a virgin female.Citation: David M. Logue, Sandeep Mishra, David McCaffrey, Deborah Ball, William H. Cade; A behavioral syndrome linking courtship behavior toward males and females predicts reproductive success from a single mating in the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa, Behavioral Ecology, Volume 20, Issue 4, 1 July 2009, Pages 781–788PDF:https://watermark.silverchair.com/arp061.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAcowggHGBgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggG3MIIBswIBADCCAawGCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQMuoeDO7n52f1xso3IAgEQgIIBfXpbpoXXuglzhQGo4QofddD-tjh9V7_DmtTzC9bstKN3XVJXecAaozKIe_6MlcL8ymPymvFrcV1R_oxGsilthaY_6w04u7w_4LMdoFgmCkr1cy0PRUp0wumk0OqiU3_qR-r4BozOGn4fz9YVFL-1zTR5TvmWlTtgER-BrzFw7jxJ6yjEp9sgQ_dvyxqVuIW_x5WQlsMUZWNlW0eyVyRvCRXeWZ9UUG2sLcRYkhBC6Qm90JmPvCotprBqEniC8QeY3wRG6vgiQHNHUjRFAklfPMrNV2E6vKb_Cqb-G7EhiUht6Sly9cvxgXHm3xzOfHNy4u0zGvijwytOrMvqWBGvJu1TFQSDu1GoJQzB4xnD_dlhbmQnjvI9rdnojH41pdtxSicHK6vkR7mC_8NtiPchw52CIqgoxOdXjijqWlkVBgh0pCoSSR2GTmkY_SWN-1d4cN2F-Edr93AOJedjfWihKlcLltgECe3sADTdDSQRZnl1Ui8_tZHEZ3N7_vKkoA Aggressiveness and Size: A Model and Two TestsSummary:This research article explains how medium body size was adapted to benefit the hissing cockroaches aggressive behavior. The researchers began with removing the males’ antennae because that is one way the males can determine their opponent’s size. The researchers observed how intense the male cockroaches’ behavior was towards other males. It was gathered that the intermediate sized males were more aggressive than their small or large sized opponents. This was gauged by the amount of aggressive behavior each male cockroach presented. In an experiment testing the amount of fights won by each size, the medium sized cockroaches had more aggression and won more fights. In another experiment, male cockroaches were brushed with a amputated male antenna and an artificial antenna. The results concluded that the males were more aggressive towards the real antenna than the fake one. Out of both of these tests, it was confirmed that the intermediate sized male hissing cockroaches were more aggressive than their counterparts.Citation: Logue, David M., et al. “Aggressiveness and Size: A Model and Two Tests.” The American Naturalist, vol. 177, no. 2, 2011, pp. 202–210. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/657978.

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