The tools used to improve data presentation. The

The construction industry professionals have acknowledge the
globalization, adaptation and diversification of technology within the
industry’s future. The industry has increasingly utilized and implemented visualization
technologies to meet the increasing need and attention for high and efficient
technologies and management tools. The technological advancement has built up
and developed new technological tools that makes the industry and its workers
offer major and more effective improvements when being compared to the use of
traditional tools and technologies. Visualization, is one of the most important
and dominant tools used to improve data presentation. The implementation of
visualization technology in the Construction Industry has accrued and developed
new technologies and management tools that makes the industry and its workers
offer major and more effective improvements when being compared to the use of
prior planning technologies and tools such as Gantt charts and Critical Path
Method. These traditional tools are still used both locally and universally by
the Construction industry despite its limited capability for planning and
monitoring of projects.

Traditional tools don’t show the 3D and 4D images, thus, making it
difficult to analyse and visualise construction sequences (Sheppard, 2004). It
is said that the outputs of traditional tools are very difficult to communicate
and demonstrate as the complexity and intensity of the project increases.
However, despite the criticism, the traditional planning tools and techniques are
still used by the AEC industry. It is said to have limited capability for
planning and monitoring of projects because of the foreseeable challenges. With
the construction projects becoming much more complex and difficult to manage
there are reciprocal interdependencies between the different stakeholders and
as a response to this increasing complexity of projects, visualization tools
such as Building Information Modelling (BIM), Mobile Data and Apps, Drones, GPS
Tracking, 3-D Printers and robotic Constructors, just to name a few have been
utilized in the industrial and academic circles as the new Computer Aided
Design (CAD) shift (Succar, 2009).

The use of 3D modelling software has led to the
phenomenon known as Virtual Design and Construction or Building Information
Modeling (BIM). The implementation of 3D connected software allows for greater
control in making changes as all aspects of the 3D model are now connected. Since BIM has been recognized as a
relevant and advanced collaborating tool, a large number of construction firms
have invested in its usage just to reap its benefits. The firms utilize these
newly acquired BIM technologies in various stages, such as construction,
concept building and design, tendering, operation and maintenance. 

The changes in today’s construction industry are
inevitable and this has traditionally led to serious problems
of coordination. In a much more complex construction project where changes are
prevalent, it almost impossible to check for conflicts on the fly but with this
connected software (BIM) changing a door on a plan will result in the door
being changed or moved in all dimensions not just the plan thus making less chances
of error. BIM is a newly developing design process in which the building is
designed and built within the computer. Therefore, when the members of the
design team are all working in a BIM enhanced environment and the intelligent
building models are being used and coordinated then there is a higher
probability of error-free construction documents. The recent versions incorporated, added an increasing
amount of information into the model; for example, it pulls from historical or
other databases to improve the effectiveness and delivery of information on
site conditions, such as scheduling. This constant and onward advances in
technology have enabled connecting BIM models to devices in and out of the
field, as the advancement presents real-time sharing, thus enhancing
productivity in a construction project. 
An expansion in the range of team members to have simultaneous access to
a project BIM model is also becoming more common, and for the BIM model to be required
and deliverable to the owner and operations team, therefore, the unleashing
power of machine learning will enable faster and effective real-time delivery
of information through BIM in Jamaica and the Caribbean Construction industry.

The scope of BIM’s usage is wide as it can serve as
a useful tool and technique for different building and infrastructure projects
and at the same time it can be utilized for architecture, engineering and
construction (AEC) projects. The usage of BIM in construction projects, creates
a more intelligent and advanced process as objectives becomes achievable and
possible. Thus, the usage and implementation of BIM as a visualization
technology has implications for constructing more sustainable buildings, by
using sustainable and effective methods. This is so because the data that is
stored in BIM, maintains the accuracy and consistency even when the changes
occur within the system reflects the changes in the project. Despite the
volatility of project, the software’s purpose to improve efficiency and
productivity of construction, maintenance and operation processes rarely
remains unfulfilled. In addition, the general productivity of a construction
project can be enhanced due to the fact that BIM simplifies sharing of the
centralized model. All the project stakeholders, namely managers, designers,
manufacturers, and contractors share information regarding community,
coordination, tasks and design processes and updates, thus ensuring the project
is under control by all the relevant stakeholders. The involvement in sharing
of construction project information by all the members of the project requires
effective cooperation between them. The
technology of BIM empowers the collaboration of project participants. It
coordinates and update the changes performed by building designers in real-time
and these changes are made evident to all participants on the construction
project.
According to the ISO standard, the lifecycle building stages encompass
inception, brief, design, production, maintenance and deconstruction; where each
of these stages benefit from utilization of BIM. In order to enable the adoption and implementation
of BIM by organizations, designers and managers, an understanding of factors
that lead and hinder BIM utilization has to be achieved. The factors leading to
BIM implementation can be examined on the individual, organizational and
institutional levels. The high-level implementation areas of BIM are the
strategies and policies used because the methods and approaches the
implementation of BIM has to correspond to the overall company objectives for a
competitive positioning, operational excellence, and efficient delivery on
construction project.  The model
management tools and BIM processes are combined with the enterprise systems needed
to produce the information in a collaborative setting across the organization
and construction project teams. In order to make BIM implementation more
effective, the whole process should be divided into stages that targets each of
the stage depending on the project type.

As for the other visualization tools stated by Succar (2009),
mobile Devices and Apps are the
most widely used and adopted new technologies. They are said to be easy-to-use
as they allow workers to access document and share and edit important project
information from any location, even the jobsite. Heavy-duty devices made
specifically for field work feature rugged construction, screens that are
better lit for viewing in bright daylight or poor weather readers (both of
which can help track shipments, equipment and materials). It’s widely believed
that the future of mobile will be to dispense with devices entirely. Wearable
gear probably represents the next “big thing,” a stopping point along the way
as hardware developers pursue the elusive goal of achieving truly invisible
ways to augment reality. Laser scanning as another tool offers enormous
efficiency when it comes to assessing sites or as-built conditions as field
measurements performed with laser scanners capture very accurate and detailed
geometric information in the form of “point cloud” data that is, a large set of
points on a coordinate system. This type of technology is and can be
particularly useful when analyzing potential clashes between exiting conditions
and new building elements. Laser scanners data can be fed into BIM or CAD
files, which results in both time and cost savings. Drones also can be used to
monitor logistics, deliveries and the workforce. Some companies are taking
drone footage and converting it into 3-D pictures that can be compared to
architectural plans. However, in light of all the glorified advantages offered by the usage
of the advanced planning technologies developed from the case studies and cases
evaluated by several other researchers, the new advanced visualization
technology a planning tool is not widely used by Jamaica and the Caribbean
construction industry.

Kier Group plc, an international construction
company out of the United Kingdom who is operating in Jamaica and the Caribbean
stated in a brief that the
UK Government has now mandated the use of BIM on all capital projects by April
2016 and as an early adopter of this approach across many areas of business,
Kier is a solid position to be able to add significant value to its clients.
Therefore, Kier has positioned themselves to be a part, if not at the centre of
the future of visualization technologies in the construction industry. They use
BIM as a collaborative process and a technology toolset which enhances the
visual representation of a project, and improves information management
throughout an asset’s lifecycle. BIM provides a truly multidisciplinary model
that allows input from, for example, architects, mechanical services and
structural consultants, ideally all the way down the supply chain to suppliers
and manufacturers.

There are factors influencing and stemming the
implementation of visualization technologies and there are specific factors influencing
the implementation of BIM. They are top
management support, subjective norm, compatibility, and computer self-ef?cacy.
These have been identified by prior studies as key determinants that impact
architects’ behavioral intentions to embrace BIM, governance, model-centric
workflows, collaboration and data management and integrated analysis (see
Figure 4). Action and planned behavior are useful when it comes to the
explanation aspect if the implementation of BIM. First, the antecedent factors,
behavioral intentions and relationships are mediated by recognized usefulness
and/or ease of use. Then the understanding of BIM’s implementation behavior
should have implications its utilization rates, thus, leading to increasing
number of construction firms and architects implementing BIM. On the other hand, the technical complexity,
scheduling, and financing does present some amount of hindrance when it comes
to implementing BIM as a visualization technology in Jamaica’s construction
industry. According to the questionnaire, it is shared that for the various and
complex companies that perform these construction projects, the successful
implementation of BIM is a different test at each level and it demands a
structured and meticulous approach method. The companies have to take into
consideration the numerous combined segments of the organization’s business.
According China Harbor Engineering Company and Kier Group as an organization
they chose to implement BIM due to various benefits offered by this approach.

Hence,
to implement BIM efficiently requires significant changes in the way
construction businesses in the industry work at almost every level within the
building process as this requires the necessary individuals to reinvent the
overall workflow, train adequate staff and delegate responsibilities, along
with altering the way of construction modelling. With the proper set of
guidelines outlining an effective strategy and methodology of BIM
implementation, the construction industry in Jamaica and the Caribbean could
benefit at an organizational level.

In
reviewing the benefits of BIM for Jamaica’s construction industry, it is just
the same as it is for the industry on a whole. Holistically, BIM’s technology
empowers the collaboration of project participants. This is so because the implementation
of BIM in the design part of the construction project cycle will lead to a
record reducing of document errors and omissions and reduced rework, as well as
a significant reduced cycle time for the design process. The study by Sacks and
Barak reported that the potential productivity gain from 3D modeling is
estimated to be in the range of 15–41% of the hours required for drawing production;
and another study by Sacks found that three-dimensional (3D) parametric modelling
results in a cost reduction of drafting of approximately 80–84%. Moreover,
according to Bernstein and Pittman (2004), the effective execution of BIM can
result in efficiency change in construction, operation and support stages. Similarly,
a survey conducted on BIM’s utilization states that when BIM is used in the design
phase, it is (55%), in the detail design and tender stage it is (52%), for the construction
stage it is (35%), for feasibility stage and operation and maintenance stage it
is (27%) and (9%) respectively (see Figure 2). BIM fulfills its purpose through
all the stages of the project delivering benefits in terms of its significant improved
design quality, easiness
to be implemented, the ability to share information, its reduction of
construction costs and design errors, it ability to work faster and shortening the
timeline for the construction project. Thus, enhancing energy ef?ciency and
supporting construction projects and project managements. In the tender and bidding stage, BIM is useful as
the model holds information about work details and specifications of products.
This BIM capability accelerates and simplifies the process of tender document preparation.
Some more benefits are attained in the construction phase as BIM helps to plan
and regulate precisely what and how the construction process goes. This benefit
blocks errors, decreases construction time and enables a quicker change of
materials if needs be.

Presently,
the usage of BIM in Jamaica and the Caribbean can be very positive and
promising. Agarwal et.al (2016) presented a  McKinsey report
that highlighted the impact of BIM in the industry shows that, one study found that 75% of companies that have
adopted BIM reported positive returns on their investment with shorter project
life cycles and savings on paperwork and material costs. Because of these
benefits, various governments like Britain, Finland, and Singapore, mandate the
use of BIM for public infrastructure projects (as cited in Goubau, 2016). The
report further stated that utilizing BIM solutions in the construction sector
resulted to higher
quality work, greater speed and productivity, and lower costs for building professionals in terms of
design, construction, and operation of buildings, hence, the proposition of BIM to be implemented as a
visualization technology for construction projects for Jamaica and the
Caribbean (Laiserin, 2002). It
can and will promote higher quality and allows for flexibility in the
exploration and changes to the project design or documentation process at any
time without any hassle to the design team. This may result to minimized
coordination time and manual checking that enables the design team to have more
time solving real AEC problems. As well as BIM encourages greater speed which
will be beneficial to the construction projects in Jamaica as it allows design
and documentation to be done concurrently instead of serially, such as schedules,
diagrams, drawings, estimating, value engineering, planning, and other forms of
work communication that are created dynamically while work is progressing and
continued. BIM allows for adaptation of the original model to changes like site
conditions at a very low cost rate, therefore it will enhance the site
conditions. Utilizing BIM, will allow for more work to be done by a smaller
team and this would be ideal for the Caribbean construction industry as it
strives forward. This mean that companies both locally and from countries such
as UK and China will operate at lower costs and lesser miscommunications, less
time spent doing jobs and projects and the money will be spent in process and
administration, thus making it very functional because of higher document
quality and better construction planning. During the construction phase of construction projects,
BIM technology will provides a much more powerful media for progress monitoring
and this can be used for quick, easy and remote analysis construction performance
(see Figure 3). Additionally, the integration of as-planned and as-built models
enables the identi?cation and the isolation of elements deviating from the
accepted tolerances. Finally, a digital 3D model as BIM shows building and
different schemes to the building owner(s), thus aiding operation and
maintenance. The benefits of BIM for the building owner, developer, and other stakeholders
are also plentiful because BIM allows for better understanding of energy
consumption, scenario simulations and also provides the visual aspects of a
building project, as it contains energy parameters which under various
operating conditions, specify the cost indicators. This benefit may also result
in decreased financial risks regarding the operation, design, and construction
process. Moreover, it also expedites and heighten any/the possibility of
issuing various documentation packages for the examination of building
parameters, which simplifies the preparation process of various approvals.

Another significant
benefit of BIM lies in its ability to impact the processes by minimizing
process-related risks. Take for instance, the use of BIM may prevent
information loss, and, consequently, the wasting of resources and time, such as
the transferring of documents from one company to another and for the
transition from one construction stage to the next one. However, the usage of
the common platform can increase the chances of stealing of created
construction project information and intellectual properties. Even though the overall
economic benefits of BIM on a theoretical level are comprehensible, its
implementation in the field of the construction project has been dealt with in
slightly different ways. Already many examples are known of what a properly
applied BIM method can ideally add to the construction process in matters of
economic gain. Additionally, the modifications in the technical systems, the exteriors
and interiors are reported in the BIM model this is where it is permitted to
update all business calculations and to keep information concerning all the installed
materials and products in one central database. Hence, since the BIM model allows
for the obtaining of information on all engineering systems, it qualitatively
modifies the building operation and management.