The which includes biological, erotic, physical, emotional, social

The Summary of Sexuality and Gender

In this summary , it will be discussed that
main objectives which are related to sexuality and gender topic under the light
of human sexuality , sexual orientation , gender , perspectives on gender
inequality .

It is very well-known fact that the concept of
sexuality has changed over the years. Sexuality which is linked with
reproduction in traditional societies is different today. this event deprived
it of a certain sense. Sexuality which includes biological, erotic, physical,
emotional, social or spiritual feelings and behaviors can be described the
quality of people experiencing and expressing themselves as sexual beings. Scientists
have explored animals to understand their biological sexual behavior. In addition
, male anatomy differs from female anatomy . David Barash defended that men are
more complex than women and this was supported by animal experiments . According
to him ,  men were born to impregnate . Women
are biologically predisposed to monogamy . So the number of male sperm and the
number of female ovaries are not equal . This evolutionary approach is not
supported by Steven rose who claim that human behaviors are shaped by the
environment and instinctive movements are scarce . An Other topic is social
influences on sexual behavior . Heterosexual is common point In the all
societies which creates basis of family and marriage . Judith Lorber argues
that there are ten different sexual identities . At this point we can talk
about sexual norm which in all societies made to people discouraging  and condemning are in sexual choice . Member
of society learn these norms from socialization. homosexuality is encouraged in
some societies such as Ancient Greeks . Instead of innate, sexual responses
come from that society accepts .  Sexual attraction is related to people’s
external appearance . With developing technology, people started to control
when gonna they have a baby . It is the rise of contraception which is the
example of procreative tech . Nowadays , we see generally all result of baby
before born at the medical centers instead of past such as sonogram ,
amniocentesis etc . Designing babies is revolutionary event which is based on  genetic engineering . On the other hand , abortion
debates are an important issue . in many societies there are different thoughts
; There are societies in which abortion is common as well as pro-life societies
. Another subtitle is sexuality in western culture . All sexual behaviors are
prohibited by Christian teachings except for the reproduction . Some groups
have opposed it over time . Traditional attitudes differ from liberal
enlightenment after 1960 . Today , film and media have an effect on this
difference . The proportions of prostitutes and premarital sex acts in Kinsey’s
studies are shocked the many groups . Gagnon and Simon continued to work on the
theoretical sexuality in data increasingly in the footsteps of Kinsey and  elaborate rules , a metaphorical script and
rituals are important key concept . Personal scripts and historical-cultural
scripts are produced by them .

The Another important topic is sexual
orientation . The sexual orientation is simply that the
individual feels a sense of sexual attraction to either in their own gender or
in opposite sex or in both genders . These concepts are grouped under 3
main headings ; heterosexuality , homosexuality , and bisexuality . Many
sociologists argue that sexual orientation interacts with environmental factors
and social teachings . Homosexuality in western culture is the subtitle .
Moreover , According to Plummer’s study, there are four kinds of homosexuality
in modern societies . Casual homosexuality is linked to situated activities . Personalized
homosexuality is related as a way of life . Lesbianism took less attention than
men’s sexual orientation . On the other hand , homophobia showed itself , which
is homophobia is a concept involving negative attitudes and feelings towards
homosexuals . At the same time gay and lesbian movements for civil rights for
the brake homophobia and get equality in the society . Queer theory is a theory
based on the idea that no one is bound to their identity and does not determine
who we are . Constant identity suggests that all concepts are consciously
questioned in diverse and unpredictable ways .

The diversity of characteristics between
gender is masculinity and femininity . This is a concept that includes
biological gender, sex – based social structures ( including gender roles and
other social roles ) and gender identity . Also , the term of sex is based on
physiological and anatomical differences between to explain female and male
bodies . Adrenogenital Syndrome, Chromosomes and Hormones are certain points of
natural differences with in relation between gender and biology . Different
attitudes and behaviors in society are expected from girls and boys . Gender
socialization gives a role for girl and boys in a different ways . Each sex is
cultivated in accordance with its role . The gender role is expected behaviors,
attitudes and personality traits based on the individual’s gender . The idea
that social gender based societies form is an academic structure that exists in
feminist, philosophical and sociological gender theories. In this view society
and culture create gender roles and this role is shown as ideal or proper
behavior to a person of that gender . Gender identities of , ‘ Femininity and Masculinity
‘ describe socio-cultural categories which used in biology different meanings .
It means that femininity and masculinity are shaped by socio-cultural processes
. Femininities and masculinities cover plural and dynamic which change with
culture and individuals act . Gender development is everywhere from the media
to the family, even in education which build the gender order . Gender
hierarchy is that women or man being superior to another and the peak of
hierarchy is hegemonic masculinity in our world which dominant of all groups . There
is process which is from strong order to weak order in the hierarchy of sex ; complicit
, subordinated , homosexual ( masculinity ) and subordinated , emphasized and
resistant ( femininity ) – more powerful than less powerful ) .

 

 Gender
inequality is a concept used to describe unequal behaviors , attitudes , and
perceptions that individuals are exposed to according to their gender . Their
origins are differences in gender roles . the theory of maternal deprivation
was put forward by Bowlby and argued that there will be the difference between
the mother of a growing individual and the growing individuals . Feminist
theory aims to describe the nature of gender inequality . This theorem covers
many areas such as male and female roles , communication , philosophy and
education through all the injustices in life . Liberal feminism is an
individual feminist theory that focuses on the ability of women to maintain
their equality through their actions and choices . The most
important emphasizes that the political rights of women and men must be equal .
Socialist feminism developed by Marx is a feminist movement based on the
connection of patriarchy and capitalism . Socialist feminism argues that if the
oppressed economic and cultural resources cease , only the level that the woman
will attain . Radical feminism is a perspective that makes a radical call to
social regime in which male domination is lifted in the social and economic
context . Black feminism is a system of thought that emphasizes that sexism ,
class print , gender identity and racism are inextricably linked .

BU?RA SARPER SEÇEN

                                                                                                                         2151678